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f^atiatb CoCiese Hfbtavp 




BRIGHT LEGACY 

One half the iDCome from thi« Legacy, which wu re- 
celred in 1880 under the wili of 

JONATHAN BROWN BRIGHT 
of Walthnm, MHMchiuettt, b to be expended for boolu 
for the CoUefc Libnrf . The other half of the income 
b deroted to ichoianhiM in Harvard UnlTcnity for the 
benefit of deecendaats of 

HENRY BRIGHT, JR., 
who died at Watertowa, Mauachiuetto, in 1686. In the 
absence of inch desceadantt, other penont are eligible 
to the acholarthips. The will requires that thb announce- 
ment thall be made in ererf book added to the Library 
under ita prorbiont. 



( ■ f 



SPECIAL SERIES. No. 1. 
Q 

THE PERSECUTION OF THE JEAVS 
^ IN RUSSIA, 

WITH A MAP OF RUSSIA. SHOWING THE PALE OF 
JEWISH SETTLEMENT. 




ISSUED BY THE 

Russo-Jewisu Committee of London. 



(reprinted.) 

o 

JBTNVISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OP AMERICA^ 
1891. 



SloAr3lfSJI 



■^> 



N0VT^;;:,2 



PRESS OF 

S. W. GOODMAN^ 

PHILADELPHIA. 



THE PERSECUTION 

OF 

THE JEWS IN RUSSIA. 



*'A11 Jews born in England shall be regarded as 
*• aliens. No Jew shall dwell in any part of the United 
"Kingdom but the Principality of Wales, and the 
" counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, Hereford and Mon- 
" mouth, unless they be full graduates of some (Jniver- 
" sity, members of the learned professions, skilled arti- 
*' sans certificated by the Technical Institute, or have 
"been members of a Chamber of Commerce for ^Ye 
"years, paying £100 per annum for that privilege. 'No 
"Jew shall hold any government or municipal office. 
"No Jew shall buy or rent landed property. All Jews 
"shall pay special taxes in connection with religious 
" functions. No synagogue may be opened without the 
" Queen's signed permit, and no public prayers may be 
" held in any other place than a synagogue. Married 
" Jews who become converted to the Established Church 
" of England, are ipso facto divorced on conversion, but 
"the wife if she remain a Jewess, may not marry again. 
" All Jews attaining the age of 20 years, shall serve ^Ye 
"years in the*active army, and thirteen years in the 
"reserve, but no Jew may become an officer, or even an 
" officer's servant. No Jew shall serve in the navy." 

A condition of things such as is suggested by the 
above set of rules is so utterly impossible in free Eng- 



land, that they may easily raise a smile. Yet they rep- 
resent in. a manner calculated to bring the subject home 
to English readers, the normal situation of the Jews of 
Eussia, under which they have been obliged to live for 
much more than a century. The whole life of the Rus- 
sian Jew has always been hampered, from cradle to 
grave, by restrictive laws of the kind indicated above, 
and given in fuller, though by no means complete, detail 
in the Appendix. When it is remembered that besides 
these special laws, Russian Jews have also to obey all 
the multitudinous details of the general Russian Code, 
a state of affairs is brought before the imagination which 
Englishmen would consider utterly intolerable. 

Hard though the yoke was, the burden has been made 
absolutely unbearable by enactments brought into exist- 
ence some eight years ago, and put into rigorous opera- 
tion during the last three or four years; they were even, 
it was feared, about to be extended and intensified during 
the present year. • The practical effect of even their 
present application can be best summed up in the one 
crushing unwritten law, " No Russian Jew shall earn a 
living." 

HISTORICAL SUMMARY. 

In order to understand and substantiate this summary 
it will be necessary to comprehend the general attitude 
of the Russian Government to the Jews, and the eyents 
that led up to the* now infamous Igfiatieff LaWs of 
May 3, 1882. Russia is still, as is well known, in the 
medisBval stage of development, where Church and State 
are identical. Those who do not belong to the Ortho- 
dox Rtlssian Church are not regarded as true. Russians. 
Jews are thus both heretics and aliens in Russian eyes. 



With the followers of other creeda this principle could 
not well be carried out in its entirety without leading to 
international complications. 3ut Russian Jews have 
no natural external protectors, and the principle is 
applied in full rigor to them. They do not belong to 
the Orthodox Church ; therefore they are " foreigners," 
and are so styled and reckoned in the Law Books, even 
though their ancestors have been settled in the districts 
where they reside many centuries before Eussia had 
anything to do with them. 

There is another reason, besides the religious, which 
has caused the Russian Government to regard the Jews 
with scant favor, and 'connects them with some of the 
blackest pages of Russian rul^. ' The Russian Jews are 
regarded as " an inheritance from Poland," and they are 
kept, to this day, mainly cooped up within the confines 
of Old Poland, where they first came within the Russian 
grip. Besides Poland itself, there are the eight prov- 
inces of Western Russia (Yilna, Kovno, Yitebsk, 
Grodno, Minsk, Mohilev, Yolhynia, Podolia), which 
formerly belonged to Poland. Jews are also found in 
the three provinces of the Ukraine or Little Russia 
(Kiev, Tchernigov and Poltava), and in the four divi- 
sions of South Russia (Ekatrinoslav, Taurida, Cherson, 
Bessarabia). Western, Little and South Russia — these 
form the notorious Jewish Pale of Settlement, and within 
these precincts the ordinary Russian Jew must live and 
die. He must not set foot in holy and orthodox Great 
Russia, in the Czardoms of Kasan and Astrakhan, or 
in Finland and the Baltic Provinces. This restriction 
within the Western Provinces, applied to Jews alone of 
all the multifarious races, creeds and nationalities that 
go to form All the Russias, is the fount and origin of 



all the ills that assail Eussian Jewry. While it is 
retained, there is no hope of any permanent improve- 
ment in the condition of the Eussian Jews. It crampa 
all their industrial and eoramercial energy, and, besides, 
marks them out to all their fellow-countrymen as aliens, 
and a pariah caste set apart for special and degrading 
treatment. The only other Eussian subjects that are 
similarly hampered are discharged criminals. 

Some attempt was made in earlier reigns to settle Jews 
in agricultural colonies outside the Pale, but the attempt 
was saddled with conditions that made its success impos- 
sible. Under the milder regime of Alexander II. some- 
what more favorable opportunities were afforded them. 
In 1865 the Czar issued a rescript allowing Jewish arti- 
sans to settle outside the Pale. Besides this, the Gov- 
ernment at that time encouraged the education of Jewish 
youths, who were, on becoming full graduates or mem- 
bers of the learned professions, allowed to settle beyond 
the Pale. Altogether a considerable number of Jews 
were by these means enabled to settle outside the Pale, 
thus relieving the remainder from their competition, and 
opening new centres for Jewish industry. Eestricted as 
they were in other respects, this simple boon enabled 
them to advance in many ways, especially in education. 

After his lamentable death a change occurred in the 
position of the Jews. The anti-Semitism of Germany 
had been merely theoretical and vaporing. But it 
served to bring the chronic anti-Semitic feeling of the 
Eussian officials to a head, with the deplorable result 
known as the Anti-Jewish Eiots of 1881. Perhaps the 
officials were not altogether sorry to let the excitement 
of the people vent itself on the Jews. Besides this, a 
few of the more prominent Nihilists where discovered to 



be Jews by birth, though they had long cast off all con- 
nection with their creed and people. This was urged as 
an excuse by the official world for their attitude towards 
the Jews as a body, and caused them to look on at the 
terrible riots without stirring a finger to prevent or 
remedy them. 

At the head of the Ministry of the Interior at that 
time stood General Ignatieff. He proved that he shared 
the anti-Semitic views of the official world by issuing a 
rescript in September, 1881, even before the riots were 
over, putting leading questions to the local governors as 
to the best means of preventing the Jews from "exploit- 
ing" the peasantry. After allowing time to elapse in 
order to receive their answers, he issued the now 
notorious May Laws of May 3, 1882, O. S. The actual 
text of these is important enough to be reproduced in 
its entirety, and its original form as given in No. 42 of 
the Official Collection of Laws. 

THE MAY LAWS. 

'^ 272. On the Execution of the Temporary^ Orders con- 
cerning the Jews, 
The Committee of Ministers, having heard the report 

*Temp<yraTy Laws are those passed as Resolutions of the 
Committee of Ministers. The constitutional legislative body 
is the Council of the Empire, consisting of high officials, 
all nominees of the Crown, and presided over by the Grand 
Duke Michael. The Council would not at that time have 
consented to pass such laws as the May Laws; so Ignatieff 
had recourse to the alternative, allowed in case of urgency, 
of getting the May Laws enacted as Resolutions of the Com- 
mittee of Ministers. When the Imperial sanction was 
obtained, they became temporary laws. A temporary law 
may last forever. As a matter of fact, the May Laws have 
already existed over eight years. 



8 

of the Minister of the Interior on the execution of the 
temporary orders concerning the Jews, resolved — 

(1) As a temporary measure and until a general 
revision has been made in a proper manner of 
the laws concerning the Jews, to forbid the 
Jews henceforth to settle outside the towns and 
townlets, the only exceptions admitted being in 
those Jewish colonies that have existed before, 
and whose inhabitants are agriculturists. 

(2) To suspend temporarily the completion of 
instruments of purchase of real property and 
mortgages in the name of Jews; as also the 
registrations of Jews as lessees of landed estates, 
situated outside the precincts of towns and 
townlets, and also the issue of powers of attor- 
ney to enable Jews to manage arid dispose of 
such property. 

(3) To forbid Jews to carry on business on Sun- 
days and on the principal Christian holidays, 
and that the same laws in force about the clos- 
ing on such days of places of business belong- 
ing to Christians shall, in the same way, apply 
to places of business owned by Jews. 

(4) That the measures laid down in paragraphs 1, 
2 and 3 apply only to the Governmentg within 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement. 

His Majesty the Emperor was graciously pleased to 
give his assent to the above resolutions of the Committee 
of Ministers on the 3d of May, 1882. 

The effect of the first clause of this enactment would 
clearly be to create a Pale within the Pale. Hitherto, 
ordinary Jews, if prevented from going beyond the Pale^ 



could move from town to village, and from village to 
village, within the Pale. This was to be stopped. In 
process of time all the Jews of the Pale would be cooped 
up in the towns and "townlets" found within it. There 
they might be left to ** stew in their own juice." 

The second clause was not less wide-reaching in its 
scope, for it tended to the same end, by restricting still 
further the possibility of Jewish life in the country. If 
a Jew might not acquire land by purchase, mortgage or 
lease, or have anything to do with landed estate, his 
country life must come to an end, and even the favored 
exceptions permitted to reside in the villages as old 
inhabitants would have no work to occupy them. 

The third clause was specially hard in places where 
the largo majority of inhabitants were of the Jewish 
faith, and kept Saturday as their day of rest. 

The last clause, however, was a saving clause, restrict- 
ing the application to the Pale, and leaving movement 
free throughout Poland. 

Ignatieff began to carry his temporary laws into exe- 
cution, but the burst of indignation in Western Europe 
at the Kussian persecution of the Jews helped to bring 
about his fall in the autumn of 1882, and with his dis- 
appearance his laws were to some extent discredited and 
only partially carried into execution. Indeed, in some 
places, it was considered that they had been withdrawn. 
Thus, in November, 1884, on a certain point concerning 
these laws being referred to the Governor-General of 
Vilna, he replied that they were suspended and under 
consideration by the Senate. 

But whether moderately or vigorously applied, the 
May Laws still remained on the Eussian Statute Book, 
and only needed a revival of anti-Semitic feeling among 



ID 

the rulers of Eussia to be brought into full operation. 
This came with the increased power of M. Pobiedonost- 
zeflP, Procurator of the Holy Synod since 1880, whose 
baneful influence on the mind of his former pupil, the 
present Czar, has brought into Eussia an era of religious- 
intolerance directed against all dissenters from the Ortho- 
dox Church. Oppressive and repressive laws have been 
directed and applied against Christian sects ; Lutherans 
and Eoman Catholics are suffering to some extent, 
though not so severely as the J ews, from M. Fobiedonost- 
zeff 's determination to suppress every influence in Eussia 
that is not strictly Orthodox. 

Against the Jews it was not necessary to introduce 
new measures to effect this end. The May Laws were 
conveniently in existence, and as time went on, the inter- 
pretation given by the Senate, the highest court of appeal,, 
became more and more stringent. On one occasion it 
was decided that certain Jews who had been settled in a 
village within the Pale before May, 1882, could not 
migrate to any other village. This became a leading^ 
case, and the result has been to make the word 'settle" 
equivalent to ''intern." A Jew who was settled in a 
Eurrisian village within the Pale before 1882 is very lit- 
erally " settled " there. The important corollary was 
added that the object of May Laws was "the com- 
plete, though gradual, withdrawal of the Jews from the 
open country." 

The withdrawal of the Jews had to be gradual, or 
else the object would be too apparent, and the resulting 
congestion lead to some pestilence. But the May Laws^ 
have been applied locally and intermittently throughout 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement, harrying the Jews from 
the village** into the towns, the enforced removal causing; 



11 

in most cases the entire impoverishment of their fami- 
lies, and the finding of employment in the towns becom- 
ing more diflScult with each new irruption of Jewish 
villagers. Thus it will be readily understood what acute 
misery has been caused to the Hebrews of the town of 
Tchernigov by this clearing of the neighboring vil- 
lages. Within little more than eighteen months the 
Jewish population of the town, already overcrowded as 
it was, has risen from 5,000 to 30,000 souls : four have 
now to find a living where one found a difficulty in 
doing so before. 

PROJECTED EXTENSION OF 31AY LAWS. 

During the winter of 1889-90 it became known that 
official Kussia had it in mind, not as one would have 
thought to repeal the May Laws, the disastrous effect of 
which had already become apparent, but to extend and 
intensify them and render them permanent. Informa- 
tion was sent to the Crovernors-Goneral that it was pro- 
posed to advise the Czar to adopt new measures, having 
for their object the extension of the May Laws, the 
addition of new edicts emphasizing the old restrictions 
and disqualifications, and lending the sanction of per- 
manent law to many legal decisions of the Senate given 
in a sense adverse to the Jews. 

It was understood that the Grand Duke Michael, 
president of the Imperial Council, objected to these 
repressive laws, and it was even reported that the Czar 
himself signified his disapproval of this policy of per- 
secution. 

But notwithstanding this powerful intervention, which 
gave rise to high hopes, from some unexplained cause 
drafts of the projected laws were sent to the governors 



12 

of the several provinces, ostensibly with the object of 
inviflng their opinion thereon. 

Curiously, however, some of the Governors-General 
to whom the draft laws were submitted for comment^ 
began to act almost as if they had actually been ratified. 
They thus became known to the Jews and others ; copies 
of the draft laws were freely circulated in Paris, London^ 
Vienna and Warsaw, and attention was called to their- 
stringent character in the European press, the Times 
taking the lead in denouncing the intended tyranny. 
Forthwith Eussian Ambassadors and other accredited 
individuals hastened to assure the world that no new 
enactments had been passed, and that no fresh edicts 
against the Jews were intended. 

Indeed, it must have become obvious to the RussiaD 
officials that no such fresh laws were necessary to effect 
the end they had in view, namely, to clear the rural 
districts of the Jews, and to practically intern them in 
the towns, ^y a rigorous application of the first May 
Law, and by an insidious straining of its terms, already 
effected by the decisions of the Senate, they could attain 
their ends, at least as regards the Pale of Settlement, 
without any of the formalities and invidiousness of new 
legislation. Indeed, the Eussian Code is so framed 
that it can be turned into a formidable means of 
persecution at any time, simply by the revival of old 
laws and applying the thumb screw of police adminis- 
tration. The manifest injustice of thus leading the 
world to think these laws are abrogated by disuse, and 
then suddenly calling them into active operation must 
be abundantly obvious. The existence of the laws even 
as a dead-letter is a hardship, being a per^^etual menace^ 
and marking the Jews as a pariah class. This renewed 



13 

application of dead laws is not alone an evil per se, but 
carries with it the further grievance that the Jews never 
know when such legal weapons may not be re-opened 
upon them. Thus the Russian Jew lives in a perpetual state 
of insecurity, and may truly be said to live on the brink 
of a volcano. And then a further hardship is inflicted 
by the interprelation of the law which is invariably 
taken by the Senate, the Supreme Court of Appeal, in a 
sense adverse to the Jews. . On one occasion, indeed, 
this has been acted upon as a ruling principle. A Jew, 
who had the right of residence, and. therefore, of holding 
a house outside the Pale, desired to register a deed of 
transfer of a liouse to his wife, relying on the general 
principle of Russian law that a husband communi- 
cates all his civil rights to his wife. The officials 
refused to register, and on the matter being referred to 
the Senate, it confirmed the refusal, on the principle 
that the general Russian laws are to be interpreted in a 
restrictive sense with respect to Jews. In other words, 
unless the Russian Code expressly says to the Hebrew, 
"you may," it must be assumed to say **you shall not." 
And thei-e still remains a further hardship for the 
unfortunate Russian Israelite in the harsh manner in 
which the law is administered by the officials. 

EXPULSION FROM VILLAGES. 

A few instances of this latter point may be adduced, 
to enable the reader to realize what is implied in the new 
process of carrying out the May Laws, respecting the 
expulsion from the villages of Jews who did not reside 
there before 1882. What the ulterior consequences of 
such expulsions will be we shall see later on. In the 
villages of Gawinoski and Alexeewki, near Okna 



14 

(Podolia), all the Jews received expulsion orders, the 
reason assigned being that their names were not on the 
registers in May, 1882. Notwithstanding the fact that 
they had all been residents in these villages from 10 to 
15 years, and that the peasants and land-owners testified 
to the general fact that they had all been there prior to 
1882, they were forced to depart without delay. It was 
mid-winter at the time, and they craved leave to stay 
till spring ; but their petition was refused, and they were 
turned out of their homes during the most inclement 
weather, and had to seek refuge in the towns. Four 
Jewish families were summarily expelled from Stanisla- 
wowki. Among them was a woman who was danger- 
ously ill, and she begged the district official to grant her 
a little time to give her the chance of recovery. He not 
only refused, but gave orders to all the peasants in the 
neighborhood that they might not afford shelter to any 
of the expelled Jews even for a single night. 
^ At Szebesh (Vitebsk) the expulsion of Jews was car- 
ried out in a very complete manner, the police having 
also included a large number of artisans. There was, 
howeven*, one Jew, who with his family seems to have 
escaped the vigilance of the police. When the fact was 
discovered by the police inspector, he drove in a cart to 
the village in the middle of the night, turned out the 
family, put. the children and baggage into the cart, and 
started off with them to the nearest town, leaving the 
parents to trudge behind. At a distance of two versts 
from the town he put down the children and effects in 
the middle of the road, and then drove away, leaving 
the children alone in the dark and cold, u 

As an instance of the way in which the law is strained, 
take the following case. In the village of Palitzki, 



15 

which is nearly large enough to be regarded as a town, 
the population consisted almost exclusively of Jews. 
Suddenly the police awoke to the fact that it was a vil- 
lage, and not a town, and expelled all those who had not 
resided there before May, 1882. Among the expelled 
was one M. M., who had been born and bred there, and 
had never left the place. A short time since, however, 
he stayed away a few days to marry a girl who was resi- 
dent with her family at Bzebesh. On his return with 
his bride he was forthwith ordered to leave. His whole 
life-long sojourn was ignored, and he was regarded as a 
new settler under the May Laws, and expelled accordingly. 
A Jewish soldier, discharged from the army on the 
expiration of his term of service, was similarly expelled 
from the same village, though he had belonged to the 
village before commencing his military career. His 
prior sojourn was ignored. The fact of his absence 
being due to an act of military duty was also ignored. 
His return was regarded as a new arrival, and the expul- 
sion order was issued, and had to be obeyed. Many 
other expedients are resorted to to oust the Jews even 
from non rural districts The suburbs of large towns 
are officially declared to be outside the urban limits, and 
therefore to be counted as villages. On this plea Jewish 
families have been driven from the suburbs of Vilna 
into the already overcrowded ghetto of that town. A 
place named Eeshilovko has been always regarded as a 
town, and officially so styled in public documents. 
Kecently a decree was issued expelling the Jews from its 
precincts as from a village. On its being pointed out 
that it had been officially recognized as a town, the 
reply was made that it could not be a town, as it had 
no Town Council. 



16 

EXPULSION OP ARTISANS. 

Such are the means by which the Eussian Adminis- 
tration is carrying out the design of the May Laws lo 
clear the open country of the Jews, and coop them up 
in towns. The Czar's officials are, however, just as zeal- 
ous and as subtle in forcing back into the Pale of Jewish 
Settlement the many thousands who have managed to 
escape that prison-house. Among these the largest 
number consists of artisans who, as we have seen, were 
granted the right of free movement by Alexander II. in 
1865. It would be, perhaps too barefaced to refuse this 
right directly, but the very generality of the permission 
gives an opportunity to the officials for evading it. It 
gives permission to "artisans" to reside outside the fifteen 
provinces ; but who is to say what classes of workmen 
are to be included under the term "artisan?" Thus 
the administration of the Province of Smolensk has 
decided that Jewish bakers, butchers, glaziers and vine- 
gar makers are no longer to be regarded as artisans, and 
accordingly Jews coming under those categories have 
been ordered to quit Smolensk and return to the Pale of 
Settlement. The authorities of Simbirsk have taken the 
hint and acted upon it, expelling several Jewish artisans 
and their families. A vinegar maker, who had lived 
there for thirty years and had carried on his trade in 
the same place since 1869, was ordered to leave, the arti- 
sans' guild having lately declared that vinegar making 
was not a handicraft trade, and this though the Senate 
last year determined that vinegar makers were to be 
regarded as artisans, and were therefore to be permitted 
residence anywhere in Eussia. This Jew, however, 
though 72 years of age, and with a family dependent 
on him and his trade, has been forced to depart, and he 



17 

and his family are ruined. From the same town a Jew- 
ish baker, resident in the place for twenty -five years, has 
also been expelled, presumably because a baker is no 
longer regarded as an artisan. The expulsion order as 
usual included all the family. The eldest son, a student 
in the highest class of the Gymnasium, is thus also com- 
pelled to leave the town, and his studies are cut short 
just as he is about to attain the educational position at 
which he aimed. It may be here remarked that the 
right of residence outside the Pale does not pass on to 
the children unless they also qualify as artisans. If not 
so qualified, at the age of twenty-one they must settle 
within the Pale. 

Another instance of the elasticity of the term " arti- 
san'' is afforded by the craft of printing. Quite recently, 
twenty-five Jewish workmen, at a well known printing 
press at Moscow, were summarily dismissed and sent 
back to the Pale, though some of them had lived out- 
side it as compositors ever since 1874. On inquiry being 
made of the reason for thip, the reply was made that 
printing is not a handicraft but an artcraft, and that 
therefore conipositors are not artisans. One of the vic- 
tims of this injustice is now in London. 

A further loophole is afforded to the officials by the 
epithet 'skilled" which is applied to the term "artisan." 
With the extreme division of labor in modern indus- 
try', it is rare to find a workman competent in all parts 
of his craft, and it is therefore easy to find him tripping 
by purposely setting him to do some branch of his craft 
with which he is not acquainted. Thus a tailor's cutter 
is set to do the work of a presser, or vice versa^ and on 
his failing, the unfortunate victim is expelled from the 
guild and from the town where he had at least been able 



18 

to earn a living. In most cases the guild-master is called 
upon to judge as to the workman's capacity for his trade, 
and there is at the present moment, in London, a Jewish 
shoemaker from Livonia, who was expelled on the judg- 
ment of a guild-master, a rival neighbor. Similarlj- 
an artisan must work at his craft in order to retain the 
privilege. The police will therefore make a damiciliarj- 
visit on the Jewish Sabbath, and finding the workman 
at rest expel him for not being engaged at his craft. 
Still more harshly the same restriction is applied to- 
workmen who have passed the age for work. These are 
ruthlessly sent back to the Pale, from the towns whore 
they have spent a lifetime of honorable industry. 

Even within the Pale no favor is shown to arti- 
sans, the plea being that they are not specially 
excepted from the May Laws. In the village of Lepe- 
ticha (Melitopol district) expulsion orders were served 
on a hundred families, on the ground that the name& • 
of those families did not appear on the registry before 
May, 1882. As a matter of fact, no such special 
registry existed in the village before or even at that 
date ; so registration, even if the Jews had deemed it 
necessarj', would have been impossible. Official docu- 
mentary evidence was therefore not forthcoming, though 
the evidence of their neighbors proved that they had 
resided in the village above ten years. Many of the 
people served with expulsion orders were artisans, 
whose certificates showed them to be workers in the 
village before 1882, but this availed them nothing. 
They then claimed that as artisans they had the right 
to live anywhere in Eussia; but here again they were 
foiled, for it was pointed out to them that the May Laws- 
made no exception in favor of artisans. These might 



19 

be allowed to Kve outside the Pale, but could not within 
it live in villages. The hundred families had to leave the 
village witlii-n thirty days, under pain of expulsion by 
Mape, in the company of criminals, handcuffed, two and 
two, and driven more like animals than men. 

Thus every means are adopted within the fifteen 
provinces to carry out the policy of internment in the 
towns, and without them every subterfuge is utilized to 
drive back within them the most numerous class of Jews 
— skilled artisans who have managed to escape from 
the ghetto. Yet more deliberate is the policy by which 
the Government are seeking to limit the number of 
those who in the future will be enabled to escape beyond 
the Pale. Liberty of movement beyond it is granted 
-only to three chief classes: young men who have reached 
the higher grades of education in the universities, 
•certain classes of professional men, and merchants of 
the first guild. Jn the first two classes of cases recent 
measures have been passed, evidently intended to limit 
the number of those who might escape by their intel- 
lectual ability from being imprisoned in the Pale. 

RESTRICTION ON EDUCATION. 

The Jew has been always renowned for his care of 
.his children's education. In Eussia he has the further 
incentive of being able by this means to gain for his 
sons a release from a veritable prison-house. Ever 
since Alexander II. gave encouragement to his Jewish 
subjects to attend the schools of the country, they have 
-eagerly taken advantage of the privilege. Any lad who 
.has shown the slightest promise of intellectual ability 
Jias been encouraged to pursue his studies. If his father 
nvas not rich enough to support the lad during his years 



20 

of study, his neighbors would club together and help him. 
Owing to this avidity for education, the proportion of 
Jewish children at the schools, especially the higher 
schools, has always been larger than that of the general 
population, a fact which one would have thought would 
be put down to their credit. This is not the view 
adopted by the Eussian oflScial world, which has recently 
taken steps to lessen the number of lads educated at the 
gymnasia and at the universities, and by that means 
lessening the number ef those who in the next genera- 
tion would be entitled to settle beyond the Pale. One 
cannot think the association of the two things is acci- 
dental. 

Hitherto there has been no direct check put upon 
this most praiseworthy zeal of Jewish parents to give 
their children the best education in their power. But, 
three years as^o a new restriction was put that is a 
typical example of persecution in the guise of red-tape. 
A rescript was issued limiting the proportion of Jewish 
scholars at universities and gymnasia to 10 per 
cent, in the Pale, 5 outside it, and 3 at Moscow and 
St. Petersburg. At first sight this does not seem so 
unfair, since the proportion of the Jewish population 
within the Pale is only 12 per cent, or thereabouts. 
But this proportion is reckoned on the whole population^ 
in town or country, whereas the universities and higher 
schools are, of course, in the towns; and here the Jewish 
proportion is very much higher: in eighty-two towns, 
over 50 per cent. ; in four over 80 ; and these statistics 
are from 1884, before the May Laws had driven so 
many more Jews into the towns. It is a manifest injus- 
tice that in a town where half of the inhabitants are 
Jews, only one-tenth of the scholars of the High School 



21 

shall be of the Jewish perauasion. It is, for instance^ 
palpably unjust that at the University of Odessa, only 
5 per cent, of the students may be Jews when there are- 
106,000 of that creed, out of a total population of 240,- 
000. The case is still harder with the universities and 
technological institutes, where an actual means of liveli- 
hood depends on passing through such establishments. 

Debarred thus from the public schools, the Jews of 
EusHia might reasonably ask to be allowed to establish 
higher schools of their own. Indeed the surplus of the- 
special tax put upon animals killed in accordance with 
Jewish law is declared legally to be intended for that 
purpose. As a matter of fact it is rarely so applied : on? 
one occasion the Governor of Kishineff " borrowed " 
100,000 roubles from this surplus to build himself an- 
official residence. But apart from this, the Jews, in sev- 
eral instances, attempted to establish higher schools at 
their own cost, but were met by a recent rescript for> 
bidding them, and pointing out that the ordinary schools^ 
were open to Jews. This is sufficient to indicate that 
the policy at the root of the new restriction is to limit 
the number of highly educated and professional Jews^ 
who would have a right to freedom of movement. It 
was, doubtless, this same policy that ciiused the Russian 
Government to refuse Baron Hirsch^s munificent offer 
of £2,000,000, to be applied to the higher and technical 
education of the Russian Jews. 

Even where schools have been established by the 
munificence of opulent Jews, the proportion of Jewish 
scholars is still rigidly kept. Thus, at Yinitza (Podolia) a 
technical school was recentlyopened at the expense of the- 
late Mr. Weinstein, a member of the Jewish community 
there, who number some 10,000 out of a total population' 



22 

of 25,000. Notwithstanding the fact that the Jews were 
nearly half the population, and the school was founded 
by a Jew, only eight scholars of that creed were admitted, 
while eighty Christian lads were granted the privilege. 
In the same way, at Gorlovka, there is a mining school 
established by the late M. Poliakoff, the Jewish railway 
contractor. It was hoped that Jewish students would 
have free access to such an establishment, and a number 
of them studied for a whole year beforehand, in order to 
be prepared for the course of study at the school. On 
application to be admitted, however, only the normal 
5 per cent, were allowed to pass its portals, and the 
remainder had to bear the waste of a year of their lives 
as best they might. 

RESTRICTIONS ON PROFESSIONS. 

Besides closing the professions in this way by limiting 
the number of those who may go through the necessary 
education and examinations for them, the Eussian Gov- 
ernment has recently lessened the opportunities of those 
who even by a lucky chance are among the tenth who 
are admitted to the higher educational establishments. 
Recent regulations have decided that no Jew shall be 
an army doctor ; the only college for veterinary sur- 
geons, that at Charkov, has been closed to them. Jews 
cannot be engineers, they are excluded from the Civil 
Service, and indeed all public offices. The profession of 
advocate^ in which Jews have had great success, is now 
closed except to those who can obtain a permit of the 
Minister of Justice, a permit which recent experience 
has shown is now never given.* The Eussian Law. in 

*While these pages have been passing through the press, 
accoi'ding to newspaper reports, the Czar's attention has 



1?3 

effect says : " You Jews may study for the law, but you 
must not practise at the bar. You may study to be 
engineers, but you must not act in that capacity." 
There can be little doubt that these illiberal meas- 
ures have been adopted, partly at least, in order to lessen 
the number of those who can escape from the Pale. 
As an instance of the all-seeing watchfulness of the 
Kussian Government in this regard, we may take the 
following recent enactment. Midwifery is one of the 
professions that confer liberty of movement outside the 
Western Provinces. But a recent decision has settled 
that a midwife does not confer the same right on her 
children, who must be left behind if she desires to follow 
her profession in Eussia proper. 

MERCHANTS OF FIRST GUILD. 

The only other class of Eussian Hebrews that are 
permitted free movement through the land of their birth » 
is that of merchants of the first guild who have paid 
their subscription, about 1,000 roubles annually, for 
five j^ears inside the Pale, and who continue to pay 
the same outside it. It is obvious that this class can be 
but small, and is not an unwelcome one to the minor 
officials, whose income is largely supplemented by black- 
mail- But even these merchants have restrictions put 
upon them. They may take one Jewish clerk with them, 
but if he leaves them they may not replace him by another 
from within the Pale, and until recently they could not 
have a Christian servant or clerk. Again, such a mer- 
chant may have his children with him till they reach 

been called to the injustice, and a number of Jewish advo- 
cates have received the permit. This statement has not been 
confirmed, and without official confirmation appears some- 
what apocryphal. 



24 

twenty-one, but he must not bring his aged parents. A 
<5ase has been known in which, to evade this barbarous 
restriction, a merchant registered his old father as his 
Talet, and his own mother as his cook. 

EXTENT AND EFFECTS OF EXPULSIONS. 

It is by this time abundantly obvious to the reader, 
that recent Russian legislation concerning the Jews has 
been insidiously and carefully directed to two points — 
to force all Jews into the towns within the Pale, and to 
reduce the number of those outside it as far as possible. 
An estimate has been made of the number of Russian 
Jews who will be dislodged from their homes by the 
new restrictions. It is on the face of it rough, and in 
round figures, but may be useful to define the situation 
•even approximately: — 

Expulsion from villages inside Pale is 

estimated to effect 500,000 

Expulsion of artisans outside Pale . . 200,000 

Expulsion from the commercial towns 

outside Pale (Riga, etc.) 500,000 

Expulsion from the 50 Verst Zone* . 250,000 

Total, 1,450,000 

Even if we reduce this number to a million, this is 
:an enormous mass of persons to be thrown suddenly 
on their own resources in strange localities already 
•overburdened with persons of their own creed and call- 
ings. The process of harrying the Russian Jews from 
pillar to post is . as yet only in its initial stages. But 
already the mass of misery that has been produced by 

♦Jews must not reside within a distance of 50 versts (33 
aniles) of the frontiers, but this rule was allowed to become 
•obsolete. It is now being put into force again. 



25 

the congestion is appalling. Jews have always been the 
poorest class of all Eussians, owing to their large fam- 
ilies and heavy taxes, reckoned to be half as raucb 
again as even those of a Eussian Christian Dissenter. 
But the new policy of cooping them up in toj^rns has 
made their poverty more pronounced: There are said 
to be over 25,000 Jewish paupers in BerditPchev, the 
Bussian Jerusalem, and throughout the Pale thousands 
of families have only one meal a day, and not even that 
if the head of the family has not found work during the 
day. The congestion of the Jews into the towns forces 
them into the potty trades and sweated urban industries. 
They are obliged often to work and live in the same 
room, to the number of 15. No wonder those who take 
refuge in England find the life of a "greener" in a back- 
slum of East London preferable to such extremity of 
misery. Jewish philanthropists in London, who have 
taken pity on some of the victims of the sweating system 
and offered to send them back to Eussia, have been met 
by the assurance that, wretched as their life here is, it is 
luxury and comfort compared with same fate in the 
Eussian ghetti. 

The cooping up in towns is beginning to tell most 
terribly on the morbidity and general vitality of the 
Eussian Jews, who alone of all their co-religionists fail 
to show superior vital statistics to those of their neigh- 
bors. Doctors used to credit Jews with immunity from 
phthisis. But of recent years the number of rejections 
for this disease, which cannot be malingered, was among 
EussoJewish recruits 6.5 per cent., against 0.5 of other 
Eussians. For other diseases and for feeble constitution, 
no less than 61.7 of the Jewish recruits were rejected, 
against but 27.2 of the ordinary Eussians. A terrible 



26 

tale is told by such figures. Translated into plain Eng- 
lish, it means that the persecution is a persecution to 
death. 

Sad as is the physical degeneration caused by the 
•cooping up of the Jews within the Pale, and inside the 
towns within it, still sadder is the moral degeneration 
which is the direct result of it. What must result when 
ten men are kept in a place where only three could find 
a decei;it living? The fierceness of the struggle for exist- 
ence can only result in fraud and chicanery being em- 
ployed as the only means of living. None of the more 
honorable careers being open, they are forced to over- 
crowd the petty industries and to undersell one another. 
The vast bulk of the Russian Israelites are at the present 
moment living on the verge of starvation, which is only 
kept off by the admirable way in which they help one 
another. But with starvation thus staring them in the 
face, what wonder if any means be adopted to avoid it? 
The accusation which the Eussian officials bring against 
the fraudulent tendencies of the Jews is the direct out- 
come of their own treatment and the severest condem- 
nation of it. 

PERSECUTION BY LOCAL OFFICIALS. 

Besides the direct misery that is produced by this 
** interment " in the towns of the Pale, there is much 
indirect persecution caused by the overt evidence it 
a,ffords of the ill-will of the Eussian Government towards 
the Jews. No one watches the political weathercock 
with such keenness as the Eussian Tchinovnik. Seeing 
the Government set against the Jews, the minor officials 
feel justified in putting into full force the multitudinous 
oppressive measures against them that crowd the Eussian 



27 

Statute Book. They even initiate now regulations of 
the character of by-laws to further harass the lot of the 
unfortunate Hebrews whose onerous taxes go to pay part 
of their salaries. All these additional restrictions bring 
further grist to the official mill by affording new oppor- 
tunities for blackmail on the part of the officials. It is^ 
of course, impossible to quote more than a few examples 
of the oppressive character of the local tyranny which 
supplements so effectually the more systematic persecu- 
tion of the Government. 

One of the most strikingly degrading of these minor 
persecutions is the recent issue of orders by the Gov- 
ernors-General of Odessa and Mohilev^ permitting the 
local police to punish any Jew "showing disrespect" in 
the public streets. The Israelites of Odessa, as a mark 
of their indignation, for some time after the issue of the 
order, refused to attend any public place of resort, and 
the order would seem to have been withdrawn in that 
city. But Jews are now obliged to touch their hats to 
every official on pain of being punished for the vague 
crime known as " disres])ect." 

A further hardship which Jews have recently suffered 
from the local administrations, is the stringent carrying 
out of the laws against the employment of Israelites in 
the Government service. This principle is now being 
made retrospective. Thus, in consequence of a circular 
from the Deputy-Governor of Kovno, to the effect that 
all Jewish writers and clerks in the Government offices, 
municipal establishments and courts of justice, were to 
be dismissed, ten Jews in Novo-Alexandrovsk, who had 
been in the public service for more than fifteen years, 
during which they had enjoyed the esteem and confi- 
dence of their Christian fellow workers, were suddenly 



28 

discliarged. They and their families are now absolutely 
without means and are reduced to beggary. 

Even after dismissal, former employes of the Govern- 
ment are mercilessly persecuted. Some Jewish clerks, 
having been dismissed by Government order from the 
offices of the Odessa Notaries, joined in establishing an 
office for the preparation of petitions and drafting docu- 
ments, thinking that they might thereby gain a scanty 
living. The Governor-General of Odessa, however, has 
ordered the police to close this office, and the families of 
dismissed clerks have consequently been reduced to a 
state of abje'ct poverty. 

And here, again, as elsewhere, the restrictive applica- 
tion is made as stringent as possible. It is reported 
from Kiev that the senior physician of the Kirilov Hos- 
pital having admitted several Jewesses to practise as 
nurses in the wards, this fact was brought to the knowl- 
edge of the local governor, who issued an order that no 
person of the Jewish religion should be allowed to prac- 
tise iti the hospital, and the Jewesses were accordingly 
discharged, presumably on the ground that nurses are 
Government officials. Similarly private tutors, by some 
inscrutable interpretation, are brought under the same 
category. The directors of the different Teachers' Insti- 
tute of Kishinev have received orders from the Minister 
of Public Instruction that no Jewish teachers may give 
instruction in Christian houses. 

PERSECUTION AS "ALIEN VAGRANTS." 

Still more arbitrary and cruel is the manner in which 
the law is being strained against what are termed "alien 
vagrants." Foreign Jews, notwithstanding many years' 
residence in Eussia, are now no longer permitted to 



29 

remain in the country, and, in default of compliance 
with the order for their expulsion, are treated as 
vagrants and prosecuted accordingly. But the officials 
frequently accuse bona fide Russian-born Jews of being 
aliens. Two such cases are reported from Letitschew 
<;Podolia). S. C. and T. D., born and bred in this town, 
the former a most respectable and benevolent man, who 
had inherited a house and some small means from his 
father, the latter a carrier, industrious, honest and highly 
respected, were both brought before the District Court 
and subsequently before the Odessa Criminal Court, and 
declared to be vagrants. They have been already eigh- 
teen months in prison, and there they are likely to 
remain, till they or their relatives can satisfy the authori- 
ties that they are Russian-born. This is no easy matter 
when the accused are men advanced in years. Regis- 
tration of births was formerly a very lax institution 
with Russo-Jewish parents ; for in the days of the Em- 
peror Nicholas, their children, if registered, were often 
forcibly taken* from their homes in early years for mili- 
tary service, and this involved forcible conversion. In 
the particular cases referred to above, the names of the 
accused appear year after year in the town books, paying 
the Imperial taxes like any other Russian subjects. It 
seems late in the day to declare them aliens now, and to 
imprison them as BrodyagSy "rogues and vagabonds," 
merely because they are Jews, and can bring no official 
proof of their place of birth. 

Again, T. E., a native of Trostianez (Podolia), an 
illiterate man, was lately brought before the District 
Court as a vagrant because he could not prove the place 
of his birth. He was remanded for seven days to enable 
him to bring evidence, but failed to produce it. He was 



30 

sentenced to four years* imprisonment, to be fbllowed by 
perpetual exile to Siberia. Later on the required evi- 
dence was forthcoming, but the court refused to accept 
it or to review the sentence. The map has a wife anci 
seven children, who are thus deprived of their only sup- 
port, and are likely to starve. 

The manner in which Jews of Bessarabia have been 
treated is peculiarly instructive in this regard. Part of 
this province was handed over to Eussia by the Treaty 
of Berlin. Its Jews were regarded by the Eoumanian» 
as " foreigners." Eussia follows suit, and thus they have 
no nationality, and are simply at the mercy of the local 
police, who either prosecute or expel them. Similai-ly^ 
when Prince Bismarck, a few years ago, expelled all 
Eussian subjects from the Provinces of Prussian Poland^ 
Eussia refused to receive the Jews who had ventured 
beyond her borders, and they were left without any 
nationality or natural domicile in the whole world. It 
will thus be seen that it is no idle formality on the part 
of the Eussian Government to call its Jews "foreigners." 
If it had not been for the hospitality of Western Europe, 
these "aliens " having no land to call their own, would 
have been driven into the sea. 

These examples will suffice to show the attitude taken 
up by the local officials of Eussia when they discern 
that the Jews have sunk lower in the eyes of the Central 
Government. The word can easily be passed by word 
of mouth from headquarters " to make it warm for the 
Jews," and no new regulations are necessary to carry 
out such instructions. Yet when any new policy is about 
to be adopted concerning the Jews, it is to these officials 
that the Government resorts for information and advice. 
Sets of leading questions are issued to the local gov- 



31 

ernors, the very tenor of which is sufficient to indicate 
the tone of reply that is wanted. It was on replies 
obtained in this way that the May Laws were formu- 
lated. Considering that every new regulation against 
the Jews means so many opportunities for these officials 
to extort blackmail from the unfortunate Israelites, to 
ask their opinion on the advisability of imposing new 
restrictions is equivalent to consulting Reynard on the 
regulation of the poultry-yard. 

Nor are there any adequate means by which the Jews 
themselves can state their own case in answer to the 
accusations of their enemies. There are practically no 
representative bodies that can approach the Government 
on any question affecting the general body of Russian 
Israelites. Thus their only hope of getting any redress 
for I heir injuries, or any alleviation of their sufferings, 
is to get the intervention of the outside world in the 
form of protests in the European press. 

ALLEGED FAILING OP RUSSIAN JEWS. 

From the above recital of the systematic and grinding 
oppression under which the Russian Jews live, it might 
be thought that there was some pressing necessity to keep 
the Jews and Jewish influence outside orthodox Rus- 
sia. As a matter of fact no adequate reason has ever 
been adduced for retaining this relic of the Middle Ages 
in nineteenth century Russia. The excuses brought 
forward are of the flimsiest, and are usually based on 
prejudice rather than fact. " The Russian Jew will not 
work with his hands," is often the cry of the official 
apologists. Russian official statistics, however, declare 
that of the 2,404,253 Jews living in the Pale of Settle- 
ment in 1888, no less than 293,507 are artisans ("rem- 



32 

esslennik"), 12 per cent, of the whole. The proportion 
of the same class in France is only 10 per cent., and in 
Prussia 9-1 per cent. We have seen, besides, that a 
large number of Russo- Jewish artisans live outside the 
Pale, as they are entitled to do, so that proportionately 
a far greater number of Russian Jews are handicrafts- 
men than among the Russians themselves, who are still 
mainly agriculturists. "Ah ! but the Jews will not take 
to agriculture " , is the parrot cry of the Russian Jew- 
haters, who point to the failure of the Jewish colonies 
established by Nicholas in the South of Russia. These, 
however, were hampered by the absurd condition that 
each plot of land should be owned in perpetuity by two 
families conjointly, and by the moral material and phj's- 
ical difficulties put in the way of the colonists at their 
first settlement. And as a matter of fact, the colonies, 
notwithstanding* the difficulties with which they have 
been met, have not been such utter failures as has been 
represented. A Government inspector reported very 
favorably upon them as late as 1880, and remarked that he 
saw no signs of incapacity for an agricultural life among- 
the Jewish colonists. The last decade has seen quite a 
large number of agricultural colonies established in Pal- 
estine and the United States by Russian Jews themselves. 
The new restrictions against purchasing or even renting 
land on lease would be by themselves sufficient to keep 
the Israelites of Russia from devoting themselves to 
agriculture, for even those who had the privilege of 
residing in the villages could never be anything better 
than farm laborers. 

It is idle to accuse the whole mass of Russian Jews of 
usury and exploitation, when at least 80 per cent, of 
them are so poor as to be living from hand to mouth, 



33 

and half of the remainder are artisans. No doubt there 
are money-lenders among the Russian Jews, as among 
Russian Christians, who ** exploit" the peasantry, but 
this class is infinitesimal in number, compared with the , 
mass of poverty-stricken and hard-working petty traders 
and mechanics in the towns. Equally exaggerated is 
the alleged deleterious influence of the Jewish innkeepers, 
to whom are attributed the well-known drunken habits 
of the Russian peasants. But these are equally, if not 
more, prone to intoxication in the interior of Russia 
where there are no Jewish publicans. To persecute the 
Russian Jews because some of their co-religionists supply 
liquor to the drunken Russian peasants is quite as insen- 
sate as would be the persecution of all English retail 
dealers because certain of them contribute to the drunk- 
enness of England. 

An old accusation against the Russian Jews is their 
evasion of military service. Even if this were true, it 
would be but natural, when no respect is paid to their 
religious scruples while they are under arms, and where 
there is no hope for a Jew to rise out of the ranks. But 
as a matter of fact, official statistics, of which we give a 
summary in the Appendix (pp. 55, 56), conclusively 
show that the exact reverse is the case. 

The only other charge that remains to be considered 
is that the Jews are the chief source of Nihilism and 
disaffection. If this were so, it could scarcely be won- 
dered at, considering how little cause the Russian Jews 
have to desire a continuance of the present regime. But 
they are eminently a loyal and patient people, and would 
be quite content if they were allowed to earn their living 
in peace. There were Jews and Jewesses among the 
Nihilists, it is true, but they had in almost every case 



34 

ceased to be Jews, and many of them had become, at 
least nominally, converts of the Orthodox Church. 
Members of the nobility and even of the clergy were 
also found among the Nihilists, but this fact has not 
been brought against those two classes ; why should it 
be brought against the Jews ? 

But it is unnecessary here in England to argue elab- 
orately that the ordinary Eussian Jews are not fiends in 
human shape, as their enemies in Eussia declare them to 
be, in excuse for their treating them so inhumanly. We 
have seen many thousands of them pass through England, 
and we can still observe some thousands who have 
remained with us in the large cities. They certainly 
bring with them some of the insanitary habits that 
belong to Eussians generally, and have been perhaps 
intensified by being cooped up in towns of the Pale. 
But apart from that, and a willingness to slave eighteen 
hours a day for the barest pittance, theie is nothing 
abominable and atrocious that has been observed in their 
character and behavior. And even in the short time 
many of them have been here, they have shown a capa- 
city for improvement under freer conditions of life that 
has surprised even their best friends. In particular, the 
readiness with which their children adapt themselves 
to English ways of thinking and acting is sufficient to 
sho\v what good citizens they are capable of becoming, 
if they are allowed free scope for their abilities. The 
inquirers into East London poverty, under Mr. Charles 
Booth, declared that, miserable as is the condition of these 
Eussian Jews when they arrive, they do not form a social 
danger or menace, owing to their capacity for self-help 
and mutual aid, and the certainty that they will raise 
themselves from their depth of poverty and degradation. 



35 

TRUE CAUSES OF THE PERSECUTION. 

' It is indeed thiscapacity for betterment that is at the 
root of Eussian antipathy to the Hebrews In the midst 
of an older economic system of customary prices and long 
credits they introduce a principle of keen competition 
that cuts down prices and profits to the advantage of the 
consumer indeed, but not to the advantage of the com- 
mercial classes, who are set against the Jews as rivals 
who excel them. The same, to a large extent, has 
occurred in the professions, where the superior energy 
and persistence of the Hebrew has enabled him to get 
ahead of his more easy-going confreres. There was a 
general up ward movementof the Jewish population under 
the regime of Alexander II., and this has been the head 
and front of their offending. It was irritating to the 
racial and religious arrogance of the Eussian pur sang 
to find the despised Hebrew making headway in busi- 
ness and in the professions. " These Jews are daring to 
excel us pure Eussians," M. Pobiedonostzeff is reported 
to have said, and certainly he has done his best to repress 
that tendency. 

The absurdity of any racial antipathy to the Jew^ is 
obvious in an empire almost as multinational as Austro- 
Hungary. M. Pobiedonostzeff, to do him justice, has 
been equally eager in repressing the influence of Poles, 
Finns and Germans, but the consistency of his injustice 
does not make it a whit the less unjust. But against the 
Jews he has a still further reason for ill-will. Amidst 
all their misery and oppression, they still cling to their 
ancient faith^ and resist the many temptations held out 
to them to abandon it. By becoming a convert to the 
Orthodox Eussian Church, a Jew is immediately freed 
from all the degrading restrictions on his freedom of 



36 

movement and his choice of a profession* He is likewise 
helped pecuniarily by an immediate sum down, and until 
recently by freedom from taxation for five years. If 
he is married, his conversion procures him a divorce, 
though, unless she likewise is converted, his wife may not 
marry again. By conversion, too, a Jew may escape the 
consequences of any misdeed against a fellow-Jew, for, 
to quote the Eussian Code, " in actions concerning Jews 
who have embraced Christianity, Jews may not be 
admitted as witnesses if an objection is raised against 
such admission.'' All that a Jew therefore need do to 
escape any legal process against him by a brother- Jew 
is to be converted, and his victim is powerless. Yet, 
notwithstanding all these temptations, only thirteen 
hundred annually, out of the five millions of Eussian 
Jews, are found willing, under the pressure of compul- 
sion, to concede even the nominal abrogation of their 
faith. M. Pobiedonostzeff doubtless regards this as a 
further proof of Jewish depravity ; but few will be found 
to agree with him outside the Eussian borders. Here 
again the recent policy of M. Pobiedonostzeff is consist- 
ent in antagonism to all unorthodox sects in Eussia. 
Lutherans and Eoman Catholics, Easkolniks and Molo- 
khani suffer the persecution of the Procurator of the 
Holy Synod and religious Yizier of All the Eussias. 

The Jews are alone, however, in combining all those 
qualities against which Eussian officialism is at present 
waging relentless war. They are commercial and urban, 
while the officials are convinced, and perhaps rightly so, 
that the present system of autocracy and bureaucracy is 
only possible while the poor, ignorant and superstitious 
peasantry are the predominating influence in Eussian 
life. The Jews are not Slavs, and are, nolens volens, a 



37 

standing protest against Panslavism. The Jews are hot 
even Christians, much less orthodox Russian Christians, 
and thus stand a third time in the way of the claim of 
Kussia for the Russians, i. e., for the orthodox Slavonic 
and bureaucratic Russians. This is the plea that is at 
the root of the most recent attempt to crush out Jewish 
influence in Russia by crushing out the Jews themselves. 
The root of the whole matter is racial arrogance, a deter- 
' mination not to allow, at any cost, the Jews to show 
themselves superior, or even equal, to the Russians. 

RUSSIAN LOSSES BY PER8i;CUTI0NS. 

Against such fanatic intolerance as this, it is, perhaps, 
idle to point out the harm that will be done to Russian 
commerce and industry by thus destroying the chief 
element of progress in them. Russians themselves 
acknowledge that the remarkable progress of Western 
Hussia of recent years, has been greatly assisted, if not 
-caused, by the commercial ability of the Jews there settled. 
Already signs are manifest of the injury that has been 
done in such an industry as that of flour mills, hitherto 
mainly in the hands of Jewish intermediaries. The 
recent fair of Nijni-Novgorod was a complete failure, 
owing to the enforced absence of Jewish traders, who 
had previously been the life of the place. The loss of 
270,000 Russian Jews who have emigrated during the 
past ten years, mainly to America, has rescued from 
Russia some of the younger and more energetic Jews 
who might have helped to develop its resources. Their 
absence is, perhaps, not regretted by the Russian Jew- 
haters, who would probably be glad if the whole five 
millions followed. But such an exodus is impossible; 
neighboring States would not allow it, and meanwhile 



38 

the normal increase of population more than makes up 
for the loss, replacing sturdy workers by helpless infants. 
What good can come to Eussia by this denial to one- 
twentieth of its subjects all the elements of justice? It 
only serves to make the Jewish question more acute, to 
bring odium and disgrace on the Eussian name. It 
does not make Eussian Jews in any way better from 
the point of view of the Slavophiles. It only intensifies 
their faults and their diflFerences from the other Eussians. 
The system sends to the outside world a number of the 
more energetic of the Jews, who cannot be other than 
ill-wishers to the Government that has driven them 
forth from hearth and home. And it tends to make 
those who remain join the mass of disaffected in just 
those parts of the empire where patriotic feelings should 
be strongest in the day of conflict with neighboring 
enemies. And, worst evil of all, it will create, nay, has 
already created, a mass of poverty which will soon bring 
matters to a crisis. Either State aid will be required to 
prevent utter starvation, or a pestilence will ravage all 
the towns of Western Eussia. 

THE REMEDY. 

Surely it would be wiser as well as more humane, to 
grant the Jews of Eussia the mere elementary rights of 
human beings, liberty of movement and freedom in 
choice of a career. All experience is in favor of such a 
policy. During the past century all the nations of 
Western Europe have adopted it, with results which no 
one but a few fanatics can call other than advantageous 
to the nations among whom the Jews dwell. It does not 
. befit a great nation like Russia to express fear of the 
influence of one-twentieth of its population becoming 



39 

predominant over the remaining nineteen-twentieihs. 
Nor does it beseem a Christi^an nation like Eussia to lag 
behind her ancient enemy Turkey in this respect. The 
boon of liberty has been recommended over and over 
again by Commissions specially appointed by successive 
Czars to inquire into the Jewish Question. 

There should be no Jewish Question. No excuse has 
ever been adduced by the officials of Eussia, that can 
justify them in treating the unfortunate Hebrews of 
Eussia as if they are tainted with some moral hydro- 
phobia. The present system of barbarous repression 
demoralizes the whole Eussian nation by accustoming 
them to sights of cruelty and oppression. Eussian anti- 
Jewish riots stand on a lower moral level than even 
Spanish bull-fights. Further, the system is a perpetual 
menace to the Jews ; they live in continual fear of popu- 
lar outbreak caused by their being marked out by special 
legislation from the rest of their fellow-countrymen. In 
times of national excitemeht, as in the days immediately 
succeeding the murder of the late Czar, their own lives 
and the honor of their women are put in jeopardy. The 
Eussian Government claims obedience and many oner- 
ous sacrifices from its Jewish subjects. What does it 
offer them in return ? Not even safety for themselves 
or protection for their wives and childi'en. Nay, in the 
face of recent events can it be said to offer them even 
the right of earning a living? 

There is no means of getting rid of this disgraceful 
and disastrous state of things but one. Complete eman- 
cipation of the Eussian Israelites from the degrading 
restrictions that oppress them in every direction is the 
only possible solution. The Pale of Settlement must 
disappear; education must be freely open to the Jews ; 



40 

bonorabl€> careers in the professions and public service 
must be allowed to Eussian Jews as to Eussian Chris- 
tians. It is not a privilege they ask for, it is a right, the 
right of every citizen of a country to be regarded as 
equal to every other in the eyes of the law. 

It is difficult to bring home to Western European 
minds the misery and degradation caused by this legis- 
lative and administrative persecution of the Jews of 
Euseia. The public mind, ever ready to sympathize 
with individual examples of physical ill-treatment, can- 
not realize the slow crushing out in a whole community 
of all manhood, of all hope of a truly human life. But 
it is hoped that the above recital of the sad situation 
and sadder prospects of the Jews of Eussia, will cause 
Englishmen to give expression to their abhorrence in 
such a way as to penetrate to the Czar, even through 
the Department of His Majesty's Journal, which edits 
all communications from the outer world. 

On His Majesty the Czar the hopes of the Eussian 
Jews rest. He can by a stroke of the pen give life to 
millions of his subjects who can now scarcely be said to 
live. He has repeatedly and graciously intimated that 
the interests of his Jewish subjects are as dear to him as 
those of the most Orthodox Russians. He cannot allow 
a new class of serfs to be created in his kingdom, and 
the position of Jews is rapidly becoming worse than 
that of the serfs, who, at least, had masters that were 
responsible for them, while Jews are gradually becoming 
serfs of the Eussian police. Alexander II. has the im- 
perishable glory of having been the emancipator of the 
Eussian serfs. Let Alexander III. advance a further 
step towards Eussian liberty, and become the emanci- 
pator of the Eussian Jews. 



NOTE. 
On THE Jewish Population of Eussia. 

Russian statistics are in a very backward state. The 
results that are reached by the Imperial Statistical 
Bureau are very incomplete, and are rarely published 
in such a way as to be checked. This is specially the 
case with the statistics of Russian Jews, and a good deal 
of uncertainty exists as to their number, which is vari- 
ously put down at three and at six millions. 

The most recent figures that have been published are 
contained in a Report made to the Pahlen Commission 
in 1885, and professed to give the Jewish population of 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement of 1884. It is very 
doubtful whether this was the case, and it is more proba- 
ble that the figures were extracted from the latest census 
of Russia, that of 1879. The figures are at best only a 
minimum, and should probably be increased about 30 
per cent. 

I. — Western Russia. 

Po^ufafion. J^^«- Percentage. 

Orodno, 1,163,525 229,574 197 

Kovno, 1,419,493 269,399 19-0 

Minsk, 1,410,754 283,194 20*1 

Mohilev, 835,244 151,055 18*1 

Podolia, 2,239,514 418,858 187 

Vilna, 1,191,992 175,996 14*8 

Vitebsk, 1,037,892 133,785 12*9 

Volhynia, 1,946,438 289,820 14*9 

II. — The Ukraine (Little Russia). 

Kiev 2,332,421 339,557 14'6 

Poltava, 2,399,400 84,041 3*5 

Tchernigov, 1,896,450 83,117 4*4 

Charkov, 2,160,203 8,474* 0.4 

* This number must refer to artisans, etc., who have 
ri^ht of residence outside the Pale, as Charkov is not included 
within it. 



Jews. Percentage. 



42 

III. — South Russia. 

Total 
Population. 

Bessarabia, 1,385,743 267,827 12-1 

Cherson, 1,479,303 140,162 9-5 

Ekaterinoslav, .... 1,459,066 47,304 3-2" 

Taurida, 898,945 21,197 2-5. 

Odessa, Kertsch, 

and Sebastopol, . . 265,813 77,279 29*1 



Total, 25,481,896 2,920,630 11*5 

To this total of 2,920,639 has to be added (a) the 
Jews of Poland, reckoned to number 1,079,000, or 14-4 
per cent, of the population ; (b) the Jews outside the 
Pale, probably numbering 750000. This would raise 
the total number of Jews in the Eussian Empire in 1884 
n 1879) to 4,74.8,640. There can be little doubt, there- 
lore, that they amount to more than five millions at the 
present time, even though their infant mortality must 
have been increased by the May Laws, and such large 
numbers, say 200,000 in the six years, have emigrated. 

Some interesting details were ^iven to the Pahlen 
Commission of the proportion of Jews in the towns of 
the Pale. In four towns they were over 80 per cent. ^ 
in fourteen from 70 to 80 per cent.; in no less than sixty- 
eight from 50 to 70 per cent.; in twenty-eight they were 
from 20 to 40 per cent. These 114 towns probably 
include the whole of the towns and "townlets" within 
which Jews are now allowed to reside. 



THE JEWS IN RUSSIA. 



From '' The Times;' November 5, 1890, 

TO THE EDITOE OP "THE TIMES." 

Sir: — Under the light of the most recent intelligence 
it is now no longer difficult to understand the truth of 
the Eussian assertions of August last, that no new repres- 
sive measures againt the Jews were intended. Though 
the draft of the new edict was then not only in existence^ 
but was an open secret, circulated so freely in the Jew- 

. ish Pale of Settlement that copies found their way to 
liondon, Paris and Vienna, it had not been presented to 
the Committee of Ministers by its promoter. The Czar's 
Government was therefore, technically, in a position to 
deny that any new edict was contemplated. That the 
promulgation of the new edict had been intended there 
is no doubt. That at the moment of denial the inten- 
tion had been abandoned, probably consequent on the 
cry of horror aroused throughout the civilized world, 
there can now also be no doubt. 

But the sigh of relief that escaped many lips, when 
the world was told that no new edicts were to be enacted 

. against the Jews of Russia, was scarcely justified by the 
true state of affairs. The repertoire of exceptional and 

.repressive laws against those hapless people was already 
full enough to enable any amount of persecution. To 
have issued new edicts against them would have been 

.truly a work of, supererogation, while the May Laws of 



44 

1882 — the hateful work of Ignatieff — were in existence. 
These, together with the bulky mass of restrictive laws 
which had been piled one on another during a long succes- 
sion of years from the days of the Empress Catherine I. 
were all-suflScient, and with a little ingenuity and 
•enough zeal in their application, the Eussian Jews, in 
their tens and hundreds of thousands, could be exter- 
minated without the promulgation of any new edict. 

And this, in fact, is now being slowly but surely 
•effected. The May Laws of 1882, which all the denials 
of all the Eussian diplomatists cannot blot out from the 
Statute-book till the Czar, with a stroke of his pen, 
repeals them, constitute by themselves an instrument of 
torture and persecution of so odious a character that the 
ordinary mind fiails to grasp their full scope and purport 
till their practical results are brought to light and their 
victims stand before us in all their misery. The novelist 
who predicted a doomed prisoner in a cell with its oppo- 
site walls gradually approaching, contracting by slow 
degrees his breathing space, till they at last immure him 
in a living tomb, foreshadowed, in fiction and in an 
individual case, the now imminent fate of countless 
thousands of human beings in the so-called Pale of Jew- 
ish Settlement in Eussia. The May Laws of 1882 have 
been gradually applied, and lately not only with in- 
■creased severity but in enlarged proportions. Whether 
the money with which the victims have hitherto been 
Able to bribe the officials and so purchase immunity or 
evasion has come to an end, or whether the provfncial 
governors, many of whom are humane men and friendly 
to the Jews, have received orders from headquarters to 
enforce the law with all possible rigor, the fact remains 
that the Jews are now being ruthlessly expelled, partly 



45 

by main force, partly by force of circumstances, ffom 
tbe villages and townlets within the Pale, and are 
driven into the over-crowded towns, there to swell the 
volume of chronic poverty and suffering. There they 
become helpless paupers among the struggling poor, a 
starving multitude in a hunger-stricken hive. Squeezed 
within limits too narrow for the old inhabitants, without 
food or the means of acquiring food, without work or 
the chance of finding work, their own sad fate is sealed^ 
and before their career is closed they will probably bring 
pestilence and death to the towns they have unwillingly 
invaded. 

Nor is this the only phase of persecution by which the 
Israelites of Eussia are being slowly done to death. To 
tbe young Jewish student who can live on a crust, semi- 
starvation is a mere incident of life, and he forgets his 
hunger if only he can slake his thirst for knowledge. 
Cramped by the limits of space, deprived of the wealth 
of earth, he can at least enlarge his intellectuar ralige 
and store up the wealth of knowledge. But here, too, 
he is foiled. The gymnasia and Universities are prac- 
tically closed against him, only a 3 per cent, propor- 
tion of Jews in some, and a 5 per cent, proportion in 
others, being permitted. What must this mean to an 
intellectual race, when in one town alone the Jews num- 
ber 70 per cent, of the entire population, and when in 
the whole Pale of Settlement there are only two Uni- 
versities ? 

The Jews were reviled by their enemies for following 
only the paths of commerce, buying and selling, and 
producing nothing. Thus many abandon commerce, 
settle in villages and pursue an agricultural life. But 
the May Laws drive them back into the towns. Excep- 



46 

tion is mado in favor of those settled in the villages 
before 1882 ; but again the law declares that even those 
who have thus settled may not hold the land. They 
may remain there, but they may not follow the calling 
that brought them there, and that secured for them the 
means of living. 

The Jews were reviled by their enemies for following 
only pursuits that brought them monetary wealth. 
Few Jews in Russia have reached the goal of opulence. 
Nowhere in the wide world is seen such poverty as per-" 
vades the entire Pale of Settlement. But the Jews, 
scorning the base insinuation that they prize riches 
above knowledge, claim the higher education, show 
themselves in the schools worthy of it, and yet the por- 
tals of the Universities are closed against them, except 
within limits wholly disproportionate to their numbers. 
The few who gain admission achieve the highest tri- 
umphs, but find they have been drinking from the cup 
of Tantalus. The Faculty of Law declares them quali- 
fied to be lawyers, but a new regulation forbids them to 
practise without a Ministerial consent that is now inva- 
riably withheld. The Faculty of Medicine declares them 
qualified to act as army doctors, but a new law forbids 
them practising in the Army. Even the humble post 
of schoolmaster is no longer open to the Jew, and those 
on whom long service should have conferred a vested 
right of employment have been discharged. 

It may seem a sorry jest ; but the Russian law, in very 
truth, now declares — the Jew may live here only and 
shall not live there ; if he lives here he must remain 
here ; but wherever he lives he shall not live — he shall 
not have the means of living. This is the operation of 
the law as it stands without any new edict. This is the 



47 

sentence of death that silently, insiduously, and in the 
veiled language of obscurely worded laws, has been 
pronounced against hundreds of thousands of human 
beings, and the executions are proceeding — not on the 
scaffold in the sight of gaping multitudes, not in the 
dungeon by dagger or by bowl, but in the dusky ghetti 
of the Pale, the victims cramped and crushed, starved 
of air and space and food, with scarcely roof or rags to 
cover them, kicked and cuffed by officials who scoff at 
the squalid poverty that officialism has produced, pant- 
ing for life and light, but with no hope, save of the light 
and life of another world. 

Shall civilized Europe, shall the Christianity of Eng- 
land, behold this slow torture and bloodless massacre 
and be silent ? 

Your obedient Servant, 

K S. JOSEPH, 
Hon, Secretary to the Russo-Jewish Oommittee. 



APPENDIX. 



AN 



ABRIDGED SUMMARY 



OF 



LAWS, 

SPECIAL AND RESTRICTIVE, 



RELATING TO THE 



JEWS IN RUSSIA, 



BROUGHT DOWN TO THE YEAR 



1890. 



INDEX TO APPENDIX. 



PAGB 

On Eeligion, 51 

On Duties towards the State : — 

I. — Military Duties, 53 

II.— Taxation, 56 

On the Education of Jewish Youth, ...... 57 

On Personal Status and Eight of Settlement and 
Movement : — 

I. — Permanent Eesidence Within the Pale 

of Jewish Settlement, 59 

II. — Permanent Eesidence Outside the Pale 

of Jewish Settlement, 60 

III. — ^Temporary Eesidence Within the Pale of 

Jewish Settlement, 62 

IV.— Temporary Eesidence Outside the Pale 

of Jewish Settlement, ...... 64 

v.— On Passports, 66 

On the Eights of Property, 67 

On Agricultural Pursuits and Husbandry, ... 71 

On Commercial Eights, 72 

On the Trade in Intoxicants, 75 

On Industrial Pursuits, 76 

On Civil Service, 77 

On Eepresentation, 79 

On Military Service, . 81 

On Legal Procedure in reference to the Jews, . . 83 

On Punishments, 84 

Eegulations as to Foreign Jews, 86 



APPENDIX. 



General observation. — It must be remarked that many 
of the laws here given contradict one another. This 
fact must not be regarded as involving any inaccuracy 
in transcription or translation In Eussia, laws are piled 
on one another without satisfactory consolidation. 
Hence the contradictions, which, as they exist in the 
original text, exist also in this Summary. 

ON EELIGION. 

A married [,?i;J who adopts the Orthodox Christian 
faith must sign a declaration to the effect that [iy will 
-endeavor to convert [heJhuTb'^d] to the same faith. (§ 81, 
vol. X.^vart 1, issued 1887.) 

Should either a husband or a wife (but not both) adopt 
Orthodoxy, both are prohibited residence outside the 
Pale of Jewish Settlement. (Ibid, and § 31, SuppL on 
JPasspoTts, vol. XlV.j ed. 1857.) 

If a Jew or Jewess converted to the Christian Ortho- 
dox religion does not agree to continue his or her life 
with the spouse remaining in the Jewish religion, the 
marriage is dissolved, and the convert can marry a per- 
son of the Orthodox religion. (§81, Civil Laws; Code 
of Laws of the Eussian Empire, vol. X., part 1, ed. 1887.) 

Jews on reaching their fourteenth year, may be 
received in the Orthodox Church without permission of 
their parents or guardians. (§ 1, SuppL to § 78 of the 
Law on Prevention of Crimes, 1876.) 

The Minister of the Interior may allow Jewish 
children to be converted to any of the Christian denomi- 
nations that are tolerated in the Empire, even without 
the consent of their parents. (§ 3, SuppL to § 76, Law 
regarding the Beligious Affairs of Foreign Denominations, 



52 

vol XL, pan 1, (ed. 1857); § 1, note to § 94, Law on 
Prevention of Grimes, vol XIV., 1876.) 

If either husband or wife adopts Christianity, the 
children under seven years of age of the same sex as the 
convert shall also be baptized. {Ibid., SuppL to Art. 76, 

§6.) 

Every convert to Christianity shall receive a mone- 
tary payment of from 15 to 30 roubles, without distinc- 
tion of sex, and children half that sum, (§ 6., Suppl. to 
§ 78 (note'), Law on Prevention of GrimeSy 1876.) 

Eural communities of Jewish agriculturists shall keep 
1 apart from settlers belonging to another persuasion. (§ 
979, vol IX., 1876.) 

For the office of Eabbi, only such, persons are eligible 
who have passed a course of instruction either in the old 
Eabbinical schools, or in a training college for teachers, 
or in one of the public higher or middle class educational 
establishments. No one, except the Rabbis or their 
assistants, may perform, the rites of the Jewish faith. 
Marriages or divorces not having taken place before a 
Eabbi or his assistant, will be considered illegal. (Vol 
XL, part 1, Law about the Religious Affairs if Foreign 
Denominations, §§ 1083 and 1086, and note; § 1135, 
and note, issued \%^^ and 1887.) 

jj, B. — Both Rabbinical Schools were closed in 1873> 
i. e., seventeen years ago. Of the two training colleges 
for teachers, one, namely, that of Zitomir, was closed 
in 1885. Besides, when these colleges were founded, it 
was ordained by law, that such pupils as intended to 
become Rabbis should not be received. As to the 
public educational establishments, it is well known 
that there neither the Hebrew language, nor the Hebrew 
religion is taught, but only such branches of knowledge 
as have nothing in common with Jewish theology. 
Consequently, such so-called Orovm Rabbis must neces- 
sarily oe elected who receive their education at the 
higher and middle class public establishments, but who 
are absolutely unable to perform religious rites, which 
require theological knowledge. Thus it comes to pass, 
thats the religious requirements of the Jewish commu^' 
nities cannot be provided for in a legal manner. 



53 

, Synagogues and houses of prayer in the same streets 
and squares where Orthodox churches exist must he 
situated at a distance of at least a hundred sajen from 
the latter. (§ 258, voL Xll,^ part 1, Law on Buildings.) 

Public prayer and worship may only be held in the 
Synagogues and houses of prayer. Jews holding divine 
worship in their houses without permission of the 
authoritiep, will be punished by law. (^Note to %% 1060 
and 1061, vol. -Z7, part 1, Law on the Religious Affairs 
of Foreign Denominations, 1857; § 98, voL XIV., Law 
on Prevention of Crimes, 1876.) 

The establishment of synagogues is allowed only in 
places where there are no less than eighty Jewish 
Louses, whereas houses of prayer can be started only in 
places where there are not less than 30 Jewish houses. 
( Vol. XL, Religious Affairs of Foreign Denominations, § 
1062 ; Build. Laws, § 259.) 

N. B. — Thus in places with a smaller Jewish popula- 
tion the Hebrews are prohibited public prayer under 
pain of criminal prosecution. 

Robbery of articles used in public worship, and of 
effects appertaining to the synagogue, is not considered 
as sacrilege. (§§219-233, Penal Code, 1885; § 170, 
L^aw on Punishments by Justices of the Peace.) 

ON DUTIES TOWARDS THE STATE. 
I — MiLiTAJiy Duties. 

A person who is not a Christian, but whose brother 
has adopted Orthodoxy and lives apart, will not have 
the right of exemption as the only support of the family. 
{.Explanation of Sen., 22 Dec, 1877, iVo. 9532, 1885, and 
Oct. 17, No. 7274.) 

Those who do not contribute to the support of the 
family forfeit the right of exemption of the first or 
second class. But this law does not apply to converts 
.to Christianity (§ 48, Law about Military Duty, vol. 
IF.,' 1886.) 

The rules laid down in § 51 of the Law on Military 



5t 

t)uty, according to which persons called out for Service 
or being already in service can offer as substitute a 
brother or another relative, do not apply to Jews. (Law 
of 31st January, 1889.) 

Jews cannot be elected by their town as members of 
recruiting committees, (^imperial Order of May 20, 
1874.) 

In the Kingdom of Poland also, Jews cannot be elected 
members of the recruiting committees. {Circular of the 
Minister of the Interior, 1874, May 27, No. 971.) 

1^0 documents of any kind affording the right of car- 
rying on a trade or a profession will be issued to Jews 
under any condition, except when they have produced 
evidence that they have been registered in the recruiting 
districts. (§ 101*2, Law on Military Duty, 1886.) 

The removal of the names of Jews to divisions of 
other districts or governments is only permitted if they 
have resided in the locality to which they wish to belong 
not less than two years. (For non-Jews a previous resi- 
dence of only three months is required.) In case of 
removal to divisions outside the Pale of Settlement, they 
lose all rights of exemption accruing from certain condi- 
tions of family relations. (§119^, Law on Military Duty, 
1886). 

The military authorities have the right to submit Jews, 
whose entering the service has been postponed on account 
of bodily infirmity or insufficiently developed muscular 
strength, without notice, to a medical examination; 
such authorities not being obliged to pay any regard to 
the time prescribed by law for this purpose. {Note 2 
to § 146, Law on Military Duty, 1886.) 

Jews who have adopted Orthodoxy, will, before they 
have entered the service, and notwithstanding the classi- 
fication according to denominations, be considered as 
Jews. But once they have entered the service they will 
be considered as Christians. {Explanation of Rules by 
the Senate, 1886, February 19. No. 1342.) 

Should there be in any district a deficiency in the 
number of Jews eligible as recruits, either of those not 
exempt, or of those who on account of family conditions 



55 

have a right to exemptions of the third or the second class, 
it is permitted to draft into the army such Jews as enjoy 
the exemption of the first class. (^Note 2 to § 152^ Law 
on Military Duty, 1886 ) 

The family of a Jew who has evaded the fulfilment 
of his military duties, will have to pay a fine of 300 
roubles. The amount of the reward paid to any one 
arresting a Jew who has evaded his military duties will 
be -fixed by the Minister of the Interior. (§ 360 and 
note^ Law on Military Duty, 1886.) 

N. B. — The restrictions cited under this heading were 
called forth by the charge leveled against the Jews, 
that they tried to evade their military duties. But 
oflScial data disprove the charge. The proportion of 
the number of Jews liable to conscription, to the num- 
ber of non-Jews equally liable, must necessarily equal 
the proijortion of the Jewish male population to the 
non- Jewish. According to the data produced in the 
" Journal of Statistics," issued by the Central Statistical 
Committee, the male population of all denominations in 
European Russia, for a period of twelve years (1875- 
18S6), consisted of an average of 37;91 8,932, of whom 
1,496,076 were Jews, equal to 3 95 per cent, of the entire 
population. Now, it appears from the printed accounts 
of the Ministry of the Interior, that during these twelve 
years, there were called for the purpose of conscription, 
8,434,449 non-Jews, or a yearly average of 702,871, and 
446,802 Jews, or a yearly average of 37,233. Thus 580 
per cent, were Jews. This means a far higher percentage 
of their number in comparison with their percentage 
in the general population. 

In- 1887, according to the reports of the Ministry 
printed in the " Government Gazette," there were called 
out:— Non-Jews, 798,992; Jews, 42,407, i. e.y 5*31 per cent. 
In 1888:— Non-Jews, 862,254; Jews, 44,918, i. «., 5*20 
percent. Finally, in 1889 :— Non- Jews, 844,019; Jews, 
46,190, or 5*47 per cent. 

During the same period of twelve years (1875-1886), 

there were drafted into the army :— Non-Jews, 2,381,272, 

or a yearly average of 198,439 ; Jews, 94,535, or a yearly 

average of 7,878, i. €., 5*97 per cent. In 1887 :— Non- 

j Jews, 234,085; Jews, 12,263, or 524 per cent. In 1888 :— 

" , Non-Jews, 249,087; Jews, 13,141, or 5*27 per cent. In 

. 1889':— Non-Jews, 264,106 ; Jew^,li,552, or 6*72 per cent. 



se 

Thus we find that, whereas the fair proportion of 
Jewish Bolcliers in the Russian army should be, accord- 
ing to these numbers, 3'95, the actual proportion of 
Jewish soldiers was largely in excess of the fair per- 
centage; indeed, nearly lialf as much again as the 
equitable proportion. 

II. — Taxation. 

Over and above the ordinary assessments to which 
the rural population and the inhabitants of the towns 
are liable, the Jews have to pay the following special 
taxes : — 

I. — The ^^ Box Tax,'' which again is subdivided into 
two classes : (a) universal or general, (b) private or sub- 
sidiary. 

The general tax is levied : — 

(1) On every animal which is slaughtered kosher;^ 

(2) On every bird which is slaughtered kosher;^ 

(3) On every pound of meat which is sold as 
kosher; * 

(4) Penalties and fines for evasions of the law on 
this point are to be utilized for the objects for 
which the tax was instituted. 

The subsidiary tax levied from the Jews consists of: — 

(1) A certain percentage on the rents of the houses, 
shops and warehouses of Jews. 

(2) A certain percentage on. the profits of factories, 
breweries, industrial establishments and other 
trade enterprises carried on b}'^ Jews. 

(3) A certain percentage on the capital bequeathed 
by Jews. 

' (4) A tax on apparel specially worn by Jews and 
Jewesses. For the wearing of a skull cap 
(used by Jews during domestic prayers), a tax 
of ^ve silver roubles a year is levied. (§§ 1, 
5. ^, 10, note to § 281, Law on Taxes, vol. F., 
1857.) 

* According to Jewish rite, and declared fit for food. The 
tax is farmed^ and adds 2d, or 3d to the retail price of meat. 



57 

II. — Cqndle Tax (on Sabbatb Hglite*), amounting to 
230,000 roubles a year. (76iV/., § § 9 aw/f 67.) 
, III. — Tax on Printing Offices, amounting to 20 roubles 
for every printing press worked by hand, 120 roubles for 
every small machine press, and 200 roubles for every 
large or double machine press. (Ifote to § 158, vol. 
-Z/F., Law on Censure, 1886.) 

N. B.— The Box Tax and the Candle Tax, as also the 
tax levied for the support of educational establishments, 
and the income of the Giinzburg endowment, for giving 
subsidies to Jewish a^rriculturists, are not entered in 
the financial budget of the Ministry. {Suppl. to I 221, 
part 2; note 2, H 1 and 3, vol. /., part 2, Law on the Cdbinet.) 

The exemption from the Box Tax of those engaged . 
in agriculture is abolished, (^ote .2 ^o § 1, Suppl. to\ 
% 281, Tax Law, vol. F., 1857.) 

ON THE EDUCATION OF JEWISH YOUTH. 

Jewish children are admitted only in the public and 
private educational efttablishmcnts of places in which 
their parents have a right of residence. (§ 966, vol. IX., 
Circular of 1876; Circular of the Minister of Public 
Education, 1884, July 15, No. 9846.) 

The issue of subsidies formerly granted to Jewish boys 
and girls receiving their education in the public educa- 
tional establishments superintended b}' the Ministry of 
Public Education from the sums set aside for the edu- 
cation of the Jews, and amounting to 24,000 roubles 
annually, is abolished. (1875, July 25 (54,934a); 
Imperial assent to the Budget of the Committee of Min- 
isters.) 

In accordance with § 9()7 of the same volume, Jews 
who have passed a public middle-class school are allowed 
to enter universities, academies and other higher educa- 



* It is the religious duty of every Jewish housewife to 
light at least two candles on the eve of the Sabbath and fes- 
tivals, and this custom is most rigoroasly carried out. 



58 

tional establishments wtthoiit restriction. In 1880 the 
authorities commenced to restrict the number of Jews so 
entering. In 1882 the number of Jewish students io 
the Military Academy for Medicine was limited to 5 per 
cent. At present no Jews at all are admitted at this 
academ}'. In 1883 the number of Jewish students in 
the Minint? Institute was also limited to 5 per centv 
About the same time their number was also limited io 
the Engineering Institute for Public Roads. In 1885 
the Jews at the Technical Institute at Charkoff were 
limited to 10 percent. In 1886 a prohibition was issued 
against the admission of any Jews at all at the Veteri- 
nary Institute at Charkoff. In 1887 the number of Jew& 
to be admitted at the Institute of Civil Engineers wa& 
fixed at 3 per cent. And finally^ in accordance with the 
proposals of the Committee of Ministers^ which received 
the Imperial assent on December 5, 1886, and June 26, 
18(87, the Ministry of Public Education obtained the right 
of restricting the number of Jewish pupils in the educa- 
tional establishments generally. The Ministry thereupon 
limited, in all schools and universities, the number of Jews 
residing in places within the Pale of Jewish Settlement to 
10 j»er cent., in places outside that Pale to 5 per cent., but 
•in St. Petersburg and Moscow to 3 per cent, of the total 
number of pupils in each school or university. This with^ 
out regard to the proportion of Jews to the general popu- 
lation in any one place."^ 

Since 1885 Jews are not allowed to hold university 
scholarships derived from the Public Treasury, and can 
only enjoy scholarships derived from private endowments. 

The proceeds of the Candle Tax is to be applied to the 
buildings of Jewish schools.f (§ 9, note to § 281, Taoc^ 
Law, vol. v., 1857 ; § 1067, Law on the Religious Affairs^ 
of Foreign Denominations, vol. XL, part 1, 1857.) 

* In some places the Jewish population is 80 per cent, of 
the entire population. 

t As a matter of fact the money is frequently used for 
other purposes unconnected with educational or other wanta 
of Jews. 



&9 

N. B. — The Rabbinical Schooln of Wilna and Zitomir 
have been converted into training colleges for teachers. 
The Jewish State Schools for secondary education have 
been closed by Imperial order. Those for elementary^ 
education have been preserved only in those places- 
where the number of public schools proved insufficient 
on account of the large pjojpulation of the Jews. The* 
training college of Zitomir has been closed by order. 
{Note to § 1083, Law on the Religious Affairs of .Foreign 
Denominationty vol. X/., part 1, 1867 ; Imperiai assent to- 
the Report of the Ministry of National Education, 2Sth 
November, 1885.) 

ON PEKSONAL STATUS AlSTD EIGHT OF SET- 
TLEMENT AND MOVEMENT. 

The Jews are declared to be Aliens, whose social rights 
are regulated by special ordinances. (Note 7, § 835> 
vol IX,, 1876.) 

I. — Permanent Eesidence Within the Pale of 
Jewish Settlement. 

In the whole Russian Empire (exclusive of the king- 
dom of Poland) the Jews are prohibited from perma- 
ftently residing or settlinc: anywhere, except in the follow- 
ing fifteen gubernia: — Bessarabia, Yiina, Vitebsk, Vol- 
hyriia, Grodno, Ekaterinoslav, Kovno, Minsk, Mohilev^ 
Podolia, Poltava, Taurida (except Sebastopol), Cherson 
(except Nicolaiev), and Tshernigov, also in the guber- 
nium of Kiev, exclusive of the city of Kiev. These 
gubernia are. therefore, called the Pale of Permanent 
Jewish Settlement. (§ 16 of the Law of Passports, voL 
XIV,. ISSfJ.) 

Jews who are merchants of the first guild* may live » 
in the city of Kiev, but only in the Libedsky and 
Piossky districts of the town. {Ibid., § 17. vol IV.) 

In the towns Nicolaiev and Sebastopol the right of 

♦The monetary qualification of this ^ild is payment of 
taxes of not less than 1000 roubles per annum— of course, a 
very exceptional condition. 



60 

settlements of cartying;Qn a trade or the bas inewtrf ieon- 
tractor, or of obtaining house or landed property, is 
•granted only to Jewish merchants of either guild. {Law 
•on Passports, Art. 16.) 

Jews are prohibited froip residing permanently in the 
-western gubemia situated next the frontier, and also in 
Bessarabia within 50 versts* ot the frontier. From this 
rule are excepted those Jews who were registered in these 
localities before 27th October, 1858. or who possessed 
before 27th October, 1858, house and landed property in 
these localities, although they did not belong to such 
•communities. (Ibid., § 23.) 

Jews in the Pale of Permanent Settlement are forbidden 
to take up new residence outside the towns and townlets, the 
-only exception being in the case of settlers in Jewish agri- 
•cultural colonies established before 1882. The removal of 
Jews from the settlements where they had resided- before 
2d May, 1882, to other settlements is unconditionally pro- 
hibited. (Vol IX., Law upon Status, § 959. note 4, 1886, 
<ind note 5, 1889.) 

N. B. — This is one of the principal May Laws, of 1882, 
which has caused so large an influx into the towns. 
Jews are thereby also, under a recent legal decision, 
prohibited from removing from one village to another. ♦ 

II. — Permanent Kesidencb Outside the Pale qf 
Jewish Settlement. 

Outside the above-mentioned fifteen gubernia only 
those Jews are permitted to reside who can be classed 
under the following categories: — 

^(1^) Merchants of the first guild, both of the Eus- 
«ian Empire and of the Kingdom of Poland, 
ivho have satisfied the special conditions estab- 
lished by law. 
X2) Jews who have a diploma of doctor of medi- 
cine and surgery, or of doctor of medicine ; or 
who have a diploma of doctor or master of one 
of the other faculties of the University. 

* About 33 English miles. 



6^1 

(3) Jews who have discharged their military datie» 
in accordance with the recruiting law and 
belong to the resel^e ; also those soldiers and 
non-cdm missioned officers who have unlimited 
furlough* 

(4) Jews who have passed the higher educational 
establishments, inclusive of those for the study 
of medicine. 

(5)' Graduates in pharmacy, dentists and surgeons^ 

also mid wives. 
(6) Jews who are studying pharmacy, surgery 
. and midwifery. 

{VoL XIV., Law on Passports, § 17.) 

In the gubernium of Courland, as also in Shlok 
(Livonia), only those Jews may reside permanently who 
were registered there according to the revision before 
13th April, 1835. Of the Jews settled in Shlok, only 
those shall be allowed permanently to reside in Riga 
who had settled there before 17th December, 1841. The 
settlement of Jews in* Riga, whether from other gubernia 
or from Shlok, is prohibited. (FoZ. X/F., Law on Pass- 
ports, § 17.) 

Jews from Bokhara and Khiva, as also Jews of other 
Central-Asiatic dominions, may become Russian subjects 
and be registered in the frontier towns of the districts of 
Orenburg and Turkestan ; but only on condition that 
they belong to a merchant guild, and that the rights of 
other Russian Jews be granted them. ( Vol. IX., § 992^ 
note, 1886 ; vol. XIV, Law on Passports, § 17.) 

In the military territory of the Don, and in the old 
districts of Rostov and of Taganrog, at present incorpor- 
ated in the Don territory, the settlement of Jews is 
prohibited.! (Law on Passports, | 17.) 

* This privilege has now been lost by the Jews. 

fThis includes a district of great importance, hitherto 
largely populated by Jews engaged in commerce^ who had 
been always allowed to settle there, being part of Ekateri* 
noslav gnbernium, and thus in the Pale of Settlement, bat 
detached therefrbm on>19th May,. 18^7. 



62 

In the government of Stavropol and in the trans-Cau- 
<;a8ian territory, only those Jews ai'e allowed to remain 
who lived there before 12th May, 1837, and formed 
settlements of their own. (§ 27, Law on Passports, vol. 
jrir,, 1857.) 

Jews are not permitted to enter, or to settle in, Siberia. 
{Ibid., § 30, 1887.) 

The settling of Jews in Siberia for the purpose of fol- 
lowing agricultural pursuits is prohibited. (§ 978, vol. 
IX., 1876.) 

Wives of Jews who have been exiled to Siberia are 
permitted to follow their husbands. But the husbands 
of Jewesses exiled to Siberia may not follow their wives. 
(Note 1 to § 40, Law on Deportation, vol XIV., 1857.) 

Jewish exiles in Siberia are prohibited residence 
within a hundred versts from the Chinese frontier, and, 
in general, from the frontier of all tribes not under the 
dominion of Eussia. (Ibid., note to § 363, 1886.) 

Outside the places of Permanent Jewish Settlement 
Jews may adopt as children, in accordance with the 
general laws, only such of their co-religionists as have 
themselves a right to reside in all places of the Empire. 
{Collection of Laws, 1889, No. 35, § 298.) 

Jews are not permitted to dwell in the Grand Duchy 
of Finland. 

N. B.— No such law exists among the laws of Old Fin- 
land, which were accepted by the Imperial Government 
on annexation, nor in the "Collection of Laws of the 
Grand Duchy of Finland," issued annually by officiid 
order from 1827 to 1890. 

Ill, — Temporabt Eesidenob Within the Pale of 
Jewish Settlement. 

Only temporary residence of Jews in the cities of Kiev 
and Sebastopol is permitted, and only for the following 
purposes : — 

(1) In order to take possession of an inheritance. 

(2) In order to establish legal claims on property 
in courts of justice and in government offices. 






63 

(3) For business transactions or anything connected 
with government contracts; but only if such 
transactions take place in towns where Jews 
may permanently dwell. 
fiesidcQ in the above-mentioned cases of residence, the 
Jews are permitted to enter the city of Kiev only under 
the following circumstances : — 
(a) For military duty. 

For business during the fair. 

For importing and selling articles of food in the 

markets and in the harbor. 

(d) For transporting passengers and forwarding 
goods. 

(e) For purchasing materials. 

(/) For delivering the products of their own handi- 
craft. 

(g) For using the mineral waters or for attending 
the hospital. 

(h) For attending the educational establishments. 

(i) For learning a handicraft. 
Whenever a Jewish visitor of any of the above de- 
nominations is obliged to remain in Kiev more than 
twenty-four hours, the police may give a printed license, 
on which a special entry must be made in case the time 
is extended. 

Such extension of time is limited thus: by the expira- 
tion of the time of military duty; by the termination of 
the fair ; by the market days. For carmen, for the pur- 
chase of materials, and for the settlement of accounts for 
work, by a fortnight. For invalids, by the completion 
of the course of mineral waters or hospital attendance. 
For students, by the termination of the course of study. 
For apprentices, by the termination of the time fixed for 
the learning of a handicraft ; and for those who arrive 
upon other business, by a maximum of six weeks. 
Those Jews who are temporary in Kiev, being neither 
patients drinking the waters, nor being the wives or 
children of soldiers on active service, nor persons learn- 
ing a handicraft, are only permitted a temporary resi- 
dence in the Libedsky and Plossky districts of the town. 



64 

Jews from other towns who possess factories, or are 
merchants of one of the^ two guilds, are permitted to 
enter Sebastopol only — 

For the pupose of doing buisiness at the fairs, or, if 
they are contractors, for the supply of the gov- 
ernment with goods for that town ; but for the 
sake of carrying oti such business they are not 
permitted to employ Jews except those who are 
their servants or clerks. Jews living in the 
neighborhood of Sebastopol, and in other tt>wns- 
of the Pale of Jewish Settlement, are permitted 
to enter Sebastopol only for business on the 
established market days. Young Jews may 
only come to Sebastopol for the sake of learn- 
ing a handicraft. (§ 284, Law on Passports, 
vol XIV., 1886.) 
In the gubernia of Vitebsk and Mohilev, Jews are 
only permitted to reside in villages by special license, 
but thev may not settle as ordinary inhabitants {Ibid,, 
§16.) 

In the gubernia of Vitebsk and Mohilev, Jews are 
allowed to work in the making of roads in the settle- 
ments, but only on condition that, as soon as their work 
is completed, they have no longer a right to reside there. 
The same conditions must be observed in Courland in 
respect of Jews from the gubernium of Kovno, engaged 
in similar work. (Ibid., §§ 20, 21, 1857.) 

IV. — Temporary Kesibenge Outside the Pale op 
Jewish Settlement. 

Temporary residence outside the Pale of Jewish Settle- 
ment is permitted to the Jews only under the following 
circumstances : — 

(1) For the purpose of taking possession of an in- 
heritance. 

(2) For the purpose of establishing legal claims on 
property in courts of justice and in govern-, 
ment offices. 

(3) For business transactions, and for everything 



65 

connected with government contracts ; but only 
if such contracts take place in towns where 
• Jews may permanently dwell. In all such 
cases the police are authorized to permit the 
Jews to remain, but for no longer than six 
weeks. The authorities of such gubernia can- 
not prolong their stay beyond two months, 
unless they have obtained permission from the 
higher authorities. (5 283, Law ori Passports, 
vol. JCIV.. 1886.) 
Jewish mechanics, distillers and brewers, and gener- 
ally master artisans and their journeymen, may reside 
outside the Pale of Jewish Settlement, but, in order to 
obtain their passport (which is to be renewed periodi- 
cally), they must produce a certificate of their calling in 
accordance with the rules established by law for that 
purpose. Young Jews under eighteen years of age are 
permitted to live in places outside the Pale of Jewish 
Settlement, for the purpose of learning a handicraft, but 
*only for a period of not more than five years. (Ibid., 
note 3 fo § 283.) 

Jewish cutters and tailors may live in places where 
regiments are located, or where military training col- 
leges exist, but only until the term of their contract 
with the military authorities has expired. (Ibid., § 19, 
1857.) 

Jewish artisans may reside — in the fortress towns on 
the eastern shore of the Black Sea, and in the towns of 
Temruk and Suchum-Kale; also on the north-western 
shore of the Caspian Sea; and in the town of Petrofsk; 
but only temporarily, and in such manner that the field 
of their trade activity does not extend beyond the bound- 
aries of these towns. (Ibid., § 28, 1886.) 

Jewish carmen, who have brought goods to places out- 
side the Pale of Jewish Settlement, are not permitted to 
remain in such places longer than a fortnight. (Ibid., 
§ 285, 1857.) 

Jewish merchants of the first guild, not yet qualified 
to settle outside the Pale, are permitted to come person- 
ally, or to send their accredited agents, to the capitals 



6G 

and other towns for the purpose of purchasing goods ; 
they may do so twice a year, on condition, however, that 
their total stay do not exceed six months of the year. 
Such merchants may visit the fairs at Nijni-Novgorod, 
Irbit, Charkov and Summi, both for buying and for 
selling wholesale. 

Jewish merchants of the second guild are permitted 
to come personal)}", or to send their accredited agents, 
to the capitals and other towns, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing goods, only once a year for two months. 

Merchants of both guilds are permitted to visit the 
Christmas and summer fairs in Kiev, and carry on busi- 
ness there, both wholesale and retail, whether in Eussian 
or foreign commodities. Their stay must terminate with 
the termination of the fair. 

Jews of the gubernia of the Kingdom of Poland may 
a& a rule visit the gubernia within the Pale of Jewish 
Settlement; but only guild merchants may visit the 
other gubernia of the Empire and they only once a year, 
and then only for two months, for the purpose of doing* 
business, of contracting with the Government for the 
supply of goods, but only for such places where Jews may 
permanently reside ; and on condition that, in case such 
transactions take place in the interior provinces of the 
Empire, and are being managed by themselves, no Jews 
be employed by them. {Ibid,, § 289, 1886.) 

Jewish tradesmen, who are settlers of old standing in 
the trans-Caucasian territory, may visit Astrachan to 
sell " Marena " dye, but only twice a year, and only for 
an aggregate of six months in any one year. (lbid,j § 
290, 1857.) 

Y. — On Passports. 

Jews within the Pale of Jewish Settlement are only 
permitted to dwell outside the towns in which they have 
been registered according to the revision, if provided 
with piaasportfl. (§ 18, Law on Passports^ vol, JTIV., 
1857.) 

Jews can obtain licenses for travelling only into those 



67 

gubernia where Jews have the right of permanent settle- 
ment. (76t(f., § 121.) 

Travelling within the Pale of Jewish Settlement is 
permitted to Jews, provided they have a passport in 
which it is observed that such passport is only valid in 
places set aside for their permanent residence ; and in 
the certificates issued to merchants it is indispensable that 
the religious persuasion of their holders be mentioned. 
(Ibid,, § 286, 1889; Circular of the Minister of the Interior, 
1878, June 24, No. 73.) 

Immediately on the arrival of Jews in the capitals, the 
police are required to examine their passports and to 
inquire into their right of visiting such capital. Those 
who have no right to visit the capitals are to be imme- 
diately sent back to their places of residence. (Ibid., 
§ 294, 1857.) 

N. B. — The laws laid down under the preceding five 
chapters deprive five millions of Jews of one of the 
most essential personal rights, enjoyed not only by all 
Russian subjects, Christian, Mohammedan or heathen, 
without distinction, but also by foreigners, namely, the 
right of residing anywhere, and of free movement 
throughout the Empire. At the present time the whole 
mass of Russian Jews, with only a few exceptions, are 
caged and crowded in the narrow coufines oi the terri- 
torv which is called " the Pale of Jewish Settlement ;" 
and even there exclusively in towns. In all civilized 
States the right of settlement in any place is recognized 

\ to be one of the most essential and natural laws of every 
subject. In time of peace, foreigners even enjoy that 
right. The deprivation of such a right is regarded, 
even by the Russian legislation (?§ 30-32, 48, 49, 51 of 

I the Law of Punishment^ 1885), as a punishment inflicted 
for various criminal offences, and then only for a period 
fixed by sentence in a court of justice. 

ON THE EIGHTS OF PKOPEETY. 

On the Acquisition of Property ; on the Mortgaging 

AND Leasing of the Same; and on Farms 

AND their Management. 

Landed estates, including also land which has been 
apportioned to peasants for their permanent use, cannot 



68 

be sold to Jews. ( Vol. /X, Law on Status, Suppl, 1. to 
% 330 (note) ; § 3, 1887.) 

Land, and other appurtenances belonging to an estate, 
and which are not part of allotmeots made to peasants 
on their emancipation, may not be sold to Jews. (Ibid,, 
% 4 ; Suppl. ibid.) 

Estates in the Western and Baltic provinces, formerly 
belonging to the Jesuits, and which have to be sold by 
auction to satisfy the debts of their owners, cannot be 
bought by Jews. ( Vol. VIII.j Law on the Administra- 
tion of Grown Property in the Western and Baltic Govern- 
ments; Suppl. to % I (note 1), § 7.) 

Jews are not permitted to the public auctions of Crown 
lands. (Ibid., Suppl. to%2 (note 2), § 6.) 

Jews are not permitted to attend the public auctions 
of property mortgaged to banks, and forfeited for non- 
payment. ( Vol. XI IT., Law of Common Aid, Suppl. to § 
165 (note 2), § 3, 1857.) 

Jews are not admitted to public auctions of allotments 
of land forfeited by peasants who have made default in 
payment of serfdom commutation tax, or State land- 
tribute, or in Bessarabia, their land-rate. (Rules about 
the Peasantry, Special Suppl. to vol. IX.; Rules on Dis- 
tress, §§ 135-138; Rules on Peasants belonging to the 
State, Suppl. fo § 15 (note 1), § 7; Rules about the 
"Tsarani'' ^peasants in Bessarabia], § 95; § 5.) 

All Jews, without exception, are prohibited from pur- 
chasing landed property from land-owners or peasants in 
the nine Western gubernia. (Note 3 to % 959, vol. IX., 
Law on Status, 1886.) 

N. B. — The meaning of the foregoing seven laws is 
that Jews are not allowed to purchase landed estate 
anywhere. 

Throughout the Pale of Jewish Settlement the com- 
pletion of conveyances of purchase of landed or house 
property and mortgages in the name of Jews is suspended^ 
as also the registration of Jews as lessees of landed estate, 
situated outside the precincts of towns and townlets, and 
also the issue of powers of attorney enabling Jews to act 



69 

as agents for the managing and disposing of such prop- 
erty * Ibid., § 2 ; note 4 f o § 959.) 

No Jews, even those who are merchants of the first 
guild, may purchase landed or house, property in any 
part of the town of Kiev. Only those merchants of the 
first guild are excepted who, before being registered as 
merchants at Kiev, have been during five years mer- 
chants of the first guild in one of the towns within the 
Pale of Jewish Settlement. {Resolution of the General 
Meeting of the Department of Cassation and of the First 
and the Second Department of the Imperial Senate, M 
Nov., 1886.) 

Jews possessing a diploma of doctor of medicine and 
of surgery, or who have a diploma of doctor, master, or 
ordinary first class diploma in one of the other faculties 
of the University, do not transfer to their wives or their 
children their right of acquiring house property outside 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement. {Mesolution of the 
General Meeting of the First Department and the Depart- 
ment of Cassation of the Imperial Senate, 1889, No. 25.) 

With the exception of those who have a scientific 
University degree, all Jews are prohibited from obtaining, 
or renting, or farming landed property in the military 
territory of the Don, as also in the districts formerly 
belonging to Eostov and to the city of Taganrog, but at 
present included in the Don territory. {Vol. XIV,, 
Law on Passports ^ § 17 ; vol. VII L, 1886, and note to that 
section, 1887.) 

Jews ate prohibited from obtaining landed property of 
any kind in any part of the Baltic Governments. (1869, 
30th May (47,152); Imperial Ukase promulgated by the 
Senate of the Ministry of the Interior; 1866, 18th Feb. 
(43,031), Imperial assent to Law of the Baltic Committee.) 

In the Baltic provinces Jews cannot lend money X)n 
the security of house or landed property of any kind, 

*This is one of the "May Laws" of 1882, and it practi- 
cally annuls all the limited powers of acquisition of landed 
and house property conferred by the other laws except only 
in Urnns witnin the Pale. 



70 

either in the country or in the towns. (Collection of 
Local Laws of the Baltic Governments, partJlL, book 11. ^ 
§§ 1504, 1512. 1864.) 

The acquisition of land or house property in Turkestan 
is prohibited to Jews not domiciled there. Jews born in 
the countries of Central Asia which are situated in the 
vicinity of Turkestan, are subject to the common law 
relating to foreign Jews. (Vol, IX,, Law on Status, 
§ 1003, note 3, 1887 ; Collection of Laws, 1889, No, 7«, 
I 666.) 

Land and house property which has been obtained by 
Jews by inheritance outside those places where they are 
permitted to possess such property, must be sold by them 
in the course of six months. (Ibid., § 960, 1886.) 

The Jews are prohibited from renting mills and 
factories from the Crown in places where they are not 
allowed to reside. They are also prohibited frotn retail- 
ing intoxicating liquors on Crown lands even in places 
where they are allowed permanently to reside (i, e., in 
the Pale of Settlement). Vol. VIIL, part L, Law on 
Crown Rents, § 22, 1876, and note to the same, 1886.) 

The leaseholder of an estate belonging to the Crown 
and situated in the Western and Baltic Governments, 
may not sub-let a country-inn to a Jew. (Ibid., Law on 
Crown Property in the Western and Baltic Governments, 
§ 35, 1876.) 

Persons who have received temporary grants of Crown 
revenues in the Western and Baltic Governments accord- 
ing to the privileges of 1775, and by Imperial Ukases, 
are prohibited from assigning their interests therein to 
Jews. ( Vol, VIIL, part 1, Law on Crown Property in the 
Western and Baltic Governments; Suppl. to § 2, (note 3), 

Jews are prohibited from being managers or stewards 
of inhabited estates, and from farming from the land- 
owners the incomes they derive from the peasants. 
(Foi.ZZ:,§ 961, 1886.) 

In Courland, Jews may not farm the rents due by the 
peasants to the land-owners. They are also prohibited 
from renting inns and public-houses in townlets and 



71 

villages. (Collection of Local Laws of the Baltic Govern- 
ments, part /., § 1401, m. 3, p. 777^ § 4041.) 

In places where Jews may not permanently reside, 
they may not be admitted to the public auctions where 
chattels belonging to the Crown are being sold. (Vol. 
X., § 1500, 1887.) 

; N. B. — ^Under the laws cited in the preceding heading, 

, the Jews, with a few exceptions, are deprived of every 

I right to acquire or hold house or landed estate outside 

> the towns within the Pale of Settlement. And besides 

these enactments, the code of laws contains old regu- 

! lations which do allow Jews to acquire or hold such 

, property, to rent land, farm rents, and like obligations 

appertaining to land, to possess distilleries, to rent or 

to manage mills and factories. ( Vol. IX., Law on Statiia, 

. §? 959,961, and Suppl. 963.) These regulations have not 

been repealed, and remain on the statute books, and 

serve only to gloss over the Jewish disabilities. As a 

matter of fact, they have been rendered absolutely 

nugatory by the May Laws, being practically and 

legally repealed by them. 

ON AGEICULTURAL PURSUITS AND 
HUSBANDKY. 

The application of a part of the income derived from 
the Box Tax to the training of Jews as agriculturists is 
abolished. 

The Jewish Colonization fund, which was kept on 
deposit at the State Treasury by the Minister of Crown 
Lands, and at the Odessa Treasury by the Cherson-Bes- 
sarabia Superintendent of Crown Lands, has been trans- 
ferred to the funds of the Imperial Treasury. 

Jews are prohibited from settling in Siberia for the 
purpose of becoming agriculturists. (Vol 11., part 2, 
Position of Aliens, § 833, note; 1886, note 2to%l\ SuppL 
to § 281; Law on Taxes, vol. V., 1857; Collection of 
Megulations, 1887, No. 62, § 553, vol. IX.; Law on 
Status, § 978.) 

\ Acquisition or renting of rural property of any kind 
as well as the settlement outside of towns, being pro- 
hibited to Jews, agricultural pursuits are rendered 



72 

impossible to them. As an exception to the rule, some 
agricultural colonies which were established in certain 
places chosen by the Government in the reigns of Alex- 
ander I. and Nicholas still exist, but no new colonies 
are permitted to be established. 

ON COMMERCIAL RIGHTS. 

Trading in the gubernia outside the Pale of Settle- 
ment without restriction is allowed only to Jews who 
have acquired the position of a merchant of the first 
guild while within the fifteen gubernia of the Pale. 

In order to become a merchant of the first guild in the 
above gubernia, a Jew must have been previously a 
merchant of the first guild in the Pale of Settlement for 
five years. 

The Jew who has become a merchant of the first guild 
and settles outside the Pale of Settlement, forfeits his 
rights, and is obliged to return into the Pale, if he cease 
to pay the fees of the first guild, unless he has paid the 
fees for at least ten years. (Vol. XIY,^ Statute on Pass- 
ports, § 17; 1, contin. 1886.) 

Jewish merchants of the first guild, belonging to the 
Pale of Settlement, are allowed to visit the capitals and 
the other towns outside the Pale, for purchasing goods, 
only twice a year, and provided that both visits should 
not together exceed six months. (Vol XIY,, Statute on 
Passports, § 283, 2, contin. 1886.) 

In Siberia merchant licenses are given only to the fol- 
lowing categories of Jews: — (1) To the children of 
Jewish convicts who came there with their parents or 
who were born there ; (2) to Jewish convicts who have 
been condemned to deportation without loss of civil 
rights. (Vol. IX., SuppL to the §974 (note), 3, contin. 
ed. 1887.) 

N. B.— It follows, therefore, that Jewish criminals and 
their sons are the only Jews who can obtain a license 
to trade in Siberia, certain parts of which are extremely 
prosperous and full of natural resources. 

Jews of the Western gubernia, not belonging to any 
guild, may not take any Government contract or farm 



73 

royalties, nor may they sell wholesale by powers of attor- 
ney anything belonging to a member of the nobility, nor 
carry on business within the Empire and beyond the 
frontier, even if it be only to forward and to sell actual 
land produce. ( Vol 7X, Law on Status, SuppL to § 974; 
(note 2), § 7, 1887.) 

Jewish merchants of the first guild, in the Pale of 
Settlement, may receive goods directly from the capitals 
and from the ports, but only wholesale, and only through 
"firms residing at those places, or by means of corre- 
spondence with the manufacturers. Jewish merchants 
of the first guild are prohibited from employing Jews in 
the management or superintendence of contracts con- 
cluded by them in the interior provinces. 

The sale of products of gubernia within the Pale of 
Jewish Settlement, may be effected by Jewish merchants 
of the Pale of the first guild, in the capitals and ports, 
but only wholesale, and with the help of Christian 
employes or local merchants, or by mercantile firms, or 
by means of correspondence with the manufacturers. 
But such Jews are forbidden personally to sell goods in 
the capitals and ports, or to open shops at these places 
under pain of immediate expulsion and confiscation of 
their goods. 

Within the Pale of Jewish Settlement, Jewish mer- 
chants of the first guild may, by order of Christians 
residing in other gubernia, clear goods from the Custom 
House which their owners would be entitled to receive 
through the Custom Houses situated in the Pale 

Such Jews are, however, prohibited from selling their 
own goods which they have to receive and which have 
to pass through the same Custom Houses, outside the 
Pale of Jewish Settlement, even though they employ 
Christians for the purpose. 

Jewish merchants of the first guild, belonging to the 
Pale, may sell foreign goods at the fairs of Charkov and 
Summi, but only wholesale. At other fairs they may 
not sell foreign goods, whether on their own account or 
as consignees. {Ibid., § 2.) 

Foreign goods, which require to be sealed by the Cus- 



74 

torn House officers may not be brought to the fairs by 
Jewish njanufacturers, viz., neither to I^ijni-Novgorod, 
Irbit, Charkov, nor Sum mi ; although such goods may 
have undergone a certain manufacturing process at their 
factories, e. g., by dyeing, etc. (Jbid., § 3.) 

Jews visiting places where they are only allowed to 
reside temporarily for business transactions, may not 
during their visit sell goods in a house or by hawking 
them in the street, and any infraction will be punished 
by law. (Ibid,, § 5.) 

Jews are prohibited from acting as commission agents 
of any foreign firm for sending goods from the Custom 
Houses at the frontier to places where Jews may not 
permanently reside. (Ibid., § 6.) 

The Custom House officers may not accept a declara- 
tion from Jews, or from their agents or employ Ss, nor may 
they issue a license for the passing of goods belonging 
to Jews destined for the Custom Houses of gubernia out- 
side the Pale of Settlement. (FoZ. F/., Law of the Cus- 
toms, § 954, 1886.) 

Every one may keep his books in w^batever language 
he likes except the Jews. They are obliged to use 
either Russian, or the language in business use at the 
place where they live, but in no case Hebrew. ( VoL 
IX., Law on Status, § 955; Vol. JCL, part 2, Commercial 
Law, § 610, 1887.) 

Jews cannot act as agents for contractors for delivery 
and supply of goods in any place where they themselves 
have no right to be contractors for the delivery and 
supply of goods. (Vol. X., Civil Law on Delivery and. 
Supply for the Crown, § 7, note. 

In places of Permanent Jewish Settlement, Jews are 
prohibited from carrying on business on Sundays and 
on the principal Christian hojidays. ( VoL TX., § 959, 
notes 4 and 3; VoL XIV., On Prevention of Grimes, § 
16, note. 

N. B.— One of the May Laws. This is a great hard- 
ship in those towns where the Jews form the great bulk 
of the population. In many towns, Sunday is the legal 
and customary market day. There is no restriction to 



75 

the Sunday trading of Mohammedans and other non- 
Christians. 

Jewish merchants of the first guild, who, observing- 
the conditions established by law, settle in places outside 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement, may take with them Jew- 
ish clerks and domestic servants, that is to say, in both 
the capitals as many as the local governor and the 
governor-general -will allow ; in the other cities of the 
Empire not more than one Jewish clerk or employe^ and 
not more than four servants for every family. {VoL. 
XIV,, Law on Passports, Art 17, § 1, 1886.) 

Jews who hold a University diploma of a scientific 
degree, and who enjoy by law the right of residing in 
any place in the Empire, may (for the purpose of carry- 
ing on business and industrial pursuits), during the time 
of their residence outside the Pale of Jewish Settlement, 
have with them, besides the members of their families^ 
domestic servants from among their co-religionists, but 
not more than two. Such of them as become merchants 
of the second guild, may, besides, have a clerk or 
employe of their own faith. (Ibid., § 2.) 

Shares in the company of the "Upper and Middle 
Market Rows," in the Krassnoi Square in Moscow, may 
not be transferred to Jews, even if they become converts 
to Orthodoxy, because only persons born Christians are 
allowed to obtain such shares. (Collection of Regula- 
tions, 1890, No. 82, § 817, 818.) 

Jews may not possess shares in the joint-stock com- 
pany for the manufacture of sugar Kordelefka, in the 
district Yinitza, in the government Podolia ; they may 
not be members of the board of that company, nor be 
appointed to the office of manager or trustee. (Collec- 
tion of Regulations, 1890, iVo. 89, § 889; § 9, note; § 23, 
notes 1 and 2.) 

ON THE TRADE IN INTOXICANTS. 

Jews may deal in intoxicants only in places where 
they are allowed to reside permanently, but not other- 
wise than in their own houses. Jewish potmen may be 



76 

•employed, but only in puhlic-hooaea. belonging to Jews. 
{^Law on the Tax on Spirits, 1887, § 366.) 

Outside the boundary of towns and townlets, Jews 
may carry on business in spirits, but only in houses 
which are their own property, built on ground belong- 
ing to them, and acquired by them before 3d May, 
1882. But Jews may not deal in spirits in houses and 
on ground belonging to them only for life, or of which 
they have only a lease. (Ibid., § 363, note 3.) 

The brewing of beer and mead for their own domestic 
use is permitted in such Jewish settlements as contain 
not fewer than ten houses. (Ibid., § 108, note 1.) 

Betired soldiers and non-commissioned officers of the 
Jewish faith, settled in places outside the Pale of Jewish 
Settlement, in accordance with the old privilege, shall 
not enjoy the right to deal in spirits in such places. 
{Ibid., § 363, note 1.) 

In the gubernia of the Kingdom of Poland, Jews are 
permitted to retail spirits, but only in towns and town- 
lets ; and in such villages as are inhabited by Jews only. 
(Ibid., § 363, note 2.) 

Jews who have the right to reside permanently in 
Siberia may not carry on business there in intoxicants. 
(Ibid., § 363, note 4.) 

Jews who have removed to Turkestan from the interior 
gubernia of the Empire are prohibited from manufac- 
turing and dealing in intoxicants in Turkestan. (Ibid,, 
§ 102, note 2; § 363, note 5, 1889.) 

The clauses of the law forbidding the opening of estab- 
lishments for retailing beer and spirits in the vicinity of 
churches, houses of prayer, mosques, etc., etc., do not 
apply to the vicinity of Jewish synagogues and houses 
of prayer.. (Ibid., §§ 414, 498 and 499.) 

ON INDUSTKIAL PUESUITS. 

Jewff are not permitted to occupy themselves in gold 
mining in places where they are prohibited to reside 
ermanently. (Vol. VIL^ Law on Private Gold Mining, 
30, note 1.) 



77. 

Jews not being allowed to occupy themselves in gold 
mining cannot be agents for others in that industry. 
(Ibid., § 31.) 

In those places where trade guilds exist, plasterers,, 
bricklayers, masons, quarry-men, carpenters and paviorSy 
as also servants, are exempt from belonging to such 
guilds, but not if they belong to the Jewish faith. 
(Vol XL, Law on Industrial Professions, 1887, § 285.) 

In places of permanent Jewish residence Jews cannot 
be elected as masters of trade guilds. (Ibid., § 306, 
note.) 

In the committee of trade guilds, consisting of Chris- 
tians and Jews, the master and vice-master must be non- 
Jews. (Ibid., §§ 338 and 474.) 

In places of the Pale, the governing body of such 
guilds are obliged to take note of all Jews as have joined 
the guild, so that those Jews may be expelled from the 
guild who have not followed their calling during six 
months, without sufficient cause. (Ibid., § 346.) 

Jewish working-men are allowed to have Christian 
apprentices only when at least one of their foremen is a 
Christian, and when they have obtained a special autho- 
rization from the committee of the guild. (Ibid., note to^ 
Art. 390.) 

Jewish artisans residing outside of the Pale of Settle- 
ment may sell only the products of their own work ; a 
license of a guild merchant obtained by these Jews does 
not give them the right of selling articles not of their 
manufacture. (Ibid., Art. 103, Resolution of Senate, 
1874, No. 731.) 

Jewish photographers are not permitted to open pho- 
tographic establishments outside the Pale of Permanent 
Settlement, nor to enjoy as artisans the right of residing 
there. (Circular of the Minister of the Interior, 1875, 
April 3, No. 4395 ) 

ON CIYIL SERVICE. 

It is prohibited to receive Jews into the Civil Service 
except those of the following categories : — 



78 

(1 ) Jews who have the scientific degree of doctor 
or master, or the first class university diploma, 
may be admitted in any part of the Empire. 
(On Oivil Service, vol IIL, Art 7, 46.) 

(2) Jews who have a diploma of a physician of the 
second class, are admitted into the public 
medical service only within the Pale of Settle- 
ment. Outside of the Pale they are admitted 
only in the department of the Ministry of Edu- 
cation, and of the Ministry of the Interior, but 
not in St. Petersburg or Moscow, or in their 
respective provinces. (Ibid,, Art, 57.) 

(3) In the Civil Service of the Army, the propor- 
tion of Jewish surgeons is limited (since 1882) 
to 5 per cent. Promotion is given them only 
up to the fifth medical class, but with the con- 
sent of the chief commanders of the military 
districts. To posts above the fifth class they 
are not to be appointed at all. In a hospital 
there may be only one Jewish surgeon. To the 
district medical administration offices, to the 
chief medical administration offices, as well as 
to hospitals and offices in fortresses, they are 
not to be admitted at all. {Imperial Order, 
10th April, 1882.) 

The same rule as to the 5 per cent, proportion is to be 
applied to military surgeons' assistants and surgeons' 
apprentices. (Ibid.) 

N. B.— In fact, even the Jews who possess all the 
exceptional qualifications determined by the law are 
not admitted as a rule into Civil Service, even for the 
most subordinate positions. Lately, notwithstanding 
the foregoing permissive laws, no Jews have been 
admitted as army surgeons. 

The board of judges, and the council of sworn advo- 
cates, may receive among the number of private and 
sworn advocates, persons who are not Christians; but 
they may not accept them without the express permis- 
sion of the Ministry of Justice. (Collection of Regula- 
tions, 1889, No, 127, § 1031.) • 



79 

A special permission of the Ministers of the Interior 
and of Justice is required for the reception of non-Chris- 
tian private attorneys in the district sessions. (Oollec- 
Hon of Regulations, 1890, No. 47, § 398.) 

N. B. — Since the two foregoing regulations were 
enacted, not one Jew has been admitted as sworn 
advocate or private attorney. [But see note on p. 22.] 

ON EEPKBSENTATION. 

The election of Jews, in places of their permanent 
residence, to offices which they are allowed to fill, and 
which are of secular communal interest, can be effected 
only by their own congregational body, and apart from 
the elections for the same offices made by the Christian 
community. {YoL IX., Law on Status, § 984.) 

The number of non-Christian members of a town 
council may not exceed one-third of the entire number 
of members. {Local Institutions, 1886, Art. 1982.) 

The number of members of the Committee of the 
Bourse in Odessa not professing the Christian religion 
must not exceed one-third of the entire number of mem- 
bers. The president of the Committee and the govern, 
ment broker may not be Jews. {Collection of Regula- 
tions, 1890, m. 78, § 794.) 

' A Jew is not eligible for the post of mayor, nor can 
he act as his locum tenens. The number of non-Chris- 
tian deputies in the Municipal Council may not exceed 
a third of the entire number. (Local Institutions, Art, 
2035.) 

As Jews have no right to fill the duties of a mayor, 
they are altogether excluded from the presidency of muni- 
cipal meetings. (Circular of the Local Department of 
the Ministry of the Interior, 1879, Oct. I2th, No. 7795.) 

Jews are not admitted at all to take part in the 
election of members for the local District and Provincial 
assemblies,* nor can they be elected to any office in 

* Corresponding with English County Councils. 



80 

these bodies or their Boards. (^Statute on Province and 
District Local Institutions {Zemstvd) ; § JTTJ. of the Law 
sanctioning the Statute of \2th June, 1890 ; Collect, of Laws, 
No. 63, § 597.) 

N. B. — ^This wholly excludes Jews from local self-gov- 
ernment except manicipal, and even then their number 
is limited to one-third. 

By virtue of a general lule as to the eligibility of Jews, 
it is enacted that in the composition of official bodies- 
not more than a third may consist of Jews, so that the 
two-thirds and the president must be Christians. ( Vol. 
IX., Law on Status, § 983.) 

J e ws may not be elected to fill the office of president 
of school boards, whether in District or in Provincial 
towns, nor can they be chosen as members of the same 
by rural or urban electors. {Collection of Laws, 1889, 
JVo. 13, §116.) 

Jews are not eligible for the offices of mayor or police 
counsellors. Nor may they fill any other duties neces- 
sary in a town, which either have to be filled exclusively 
by Christians, or which from their nature cannot be 
conveniently and decently entrusted to Jews. ( Vol. IX., 
Law of Status, § 989.) 

In the nine Western Provinces, as also in the govern- 
ments of Bessarabia, Ekaterinoslav, Poltava, Taurida, 
Cherson and Tshernigov, on the appointment by rota- 
tion of thirteen jurors and three substitutes, the rule is 
to be observed that the number of Jews be in proportion 
to the number of Christians as the number of Jewish 
inhabitants of each district to the total population. 
(Judiciary Law, Regulations on Criminal Procedure, ^ 
550, note, 1886.) 

In the nine Western governments, as also in the gov- 
ernments of Bessarabia, Ekaterinoslav, Poltava, Taurida,. 
Cherson and Tshernigov, the foreman of a jury may 
not be a Jew. {Law on Criminal Procedure, § 6701, 
1886.) 

In the Kingdom of Poland Jews cannot be elders of 



81 

a hamlet unless it is exclusively inhabited by Jews. 
(Civic Renvlnfions of the Kingdom of Poland ,, book /., 
§16; F/7,§1.) 

Jews are eligible for the office of "Lavnik" in ham- 
lets inhabited by a mixed population, but only in cases 
in which they comprise not fewer than a third of the 
population. (Ibid., note 2.) 

Jews can be elected to the office of "Soltiss" (bailiff) 
only of such hamlets as are exclusively inhabited by 
Jews. (Ibid,j note 3.) 



ON MILITAEY SERVICE. 

Jewish recruits may not be employed, in ^uardinor a 
quarantine district. ( Vol. XXllL, Medical Law, § 153:^, 
1888; Collectiqn of Military Regulations, part 2, book 1, 
§ 1180, no/f^O 

Jewish privates and non-commissioned officers may not 
. be employed to guard the frontier. ( Vol. VL, Law on 
Oustoms, § 101, Collfction of Military Regulations, part 2, 
to k , § 11^2, note.) 

Jews may not serve in the navy, (^Collection of Milit. 
Regulations, vol. JCXXl. (30,484).) 

Jews may not serve as gendarmes in the districts of 
Warsaw and in the Caucasus; even such Jews as have 
embraced Orthodoxy are disqualified from this office. 
{Collection of Military Regulations, part 2, book 1, § ll8t ; 
Suppl. § 1 , note 1 .) 

Eecruits of Jewish extraction may not be employed in 
the navy, nor in the local divisions, nor among the 
miners and sappers, nor in the commissariat service, nor 
as clerks. Recruits of all other denominations, who 
serve in the districts of the A moor, have the right to 
take their families with them at the expense of the State, 
on condition of their settling permanently in that district 
on their entering the reserve. But Jewish recruits have 
not that permission. (Circular of the Principal Staff, 1889, 
July 31, No. 180; Tnstructions,'% 24; Suppl. 3, Rules.) 



82 

Jewish soldiers anci non-comniissioned officers who are 
converts to Orthodoxy may not servo in any regiments 
or divisions permanently stationed in ^ubernia where 
Jews are rescistered. ( Collection of Milit. Rpgulations^ part 
2, book 1 ; Vol. r., SuppL XVIIL (to § 213), 1859, and 
additions to the same, first continuation, 1861.) 

It is not allowed to employ Jewish soldiers as attend- 
ants upon officers. Jewish medical officers in the army, 
on the other hand, may employ none but Jewish attend- 
ants {Ibid,, § 2129, Suppl. § 39, and note.) 

Although Jewish privates may be promoted to become 
non-commissioned officers and clerks, yet no further pro- 
motion to any military post or position as officer is 
allowed. {Ibid., % 568.) 

Soldiers and non-commissioned officers of the Jewish 
faith, notwithstanding they may have served their time, 
and fulfilled the required conditions, may not be ap- 
pointed as porteepee younkers* or become candidates for 
any post as officer. {Ibid., § 727, note.) 

Jewish soldiers and non-commissioned officers who 
belong to the reserve, although they may possess a degree 
in chemistry not lower than that of dispenser, may not, 
in case of a mobilization of the array, be appointed to 
fill the post of army dispenser. {Circular of the Princi- 
pal Staff, 1888, March 2\st ; No. 66, Chief. Milit. Aw 
thorities of Medicine.) 

Jewish soldiers and non-commissioned officers are not 
allowed to enter the schools for the training of offlceis* 
{Ibid., part 2, book 15, § 506, note.) 

In case Jews pass the examination in the subjects 
taught at the military schools, the following words shall 
be omitted from their certificate "As far as their knowl- 
edge is concerned, there is no objection to admitting them 
to the military schools.^' {Collection of Regulations, 
1882, Sept. nth, No. 84, §642; notes by the authorities; 
explanation from the Ministry of War.) 



* An upper degree of non-commissianed officers permitted 
to carry swords. 



8B 

Since 1887 Jewish volunteers arc no longer admitted 
to the examination for the rank of officer, either in the 
military schools or in those for the training of officers or 
by special commission. 

Since 1889 Jews are no longer permitted to serve in 
the army as bandmasters, and of young Jewish soldiers 
no greater proportion may be appointed as musicians 
than one-third of the total number of members of the 
band. 

Jews belonging to the reserve or being substitutes for 
those entering active service, according to the regulations 
of the military law, have no right of residence outside 
the Pale of Jewish Settlement. {Resolutions of the Sen- 
ate, 1st Department, 1885, May 1st, J^o. 3372.) 

The law which forbids Jews from residing outside the 
precincts of towns and townlets applies also to Jews 
belonging to the reserve or having unlimited furlough, 
who have completed their military duties according to 
the previous recruiting law. (Resolutions of the Senate, 
1st Department, 1885, October 3d; Circular of the Minis- 
try of the Interior, November 6th, No. 29.) 

ON LEGAL PROCEDURE IN REFERENCE TO 
THE JEWS. 

In gubernia where Jews are permitted to reside perma- 
nently, they are allowed to give evidence in actions con- 
cerning such of their co-religionists as have embraced 
Christianity, but only in such cases where a sufficitot 
number of Christian witnesses cannot be found. (Vol, 
jr., part 2, § 233 ; vol. XV., part 2, § 251.) 

In actions concerning Jews who have embraced 
Christianity, Jews may not be admitted as witnesses if 
an objection is raised against such admission. (Law on 
Criminal Procedure, § 96, note; 4707, note 5; Law on 
Military Courts, §§ 621, 848; Law of Naval Courts 
Martial, §§318,767.) 

In the form of oath specially administered to Jews 
the following extra words must occur: " With a pure 



84 

heart and without menial reservation, but in accordance 
with the thoughts and intention of those who administer 
the oath to me." (Vol. JT/., part 1, Law ^on Foreign 
Denominations, § 1061 (note); Suppl. continued 1886.) 

ON PUNISHMENTS. 

No persons, except Rabbis authorized by the Govern- 
ment, and their assistants, are allowed to perform the 
ceremonies of the Jewish religion, as laid down in the 
law concerning alien religious denominations. Those 
who infringe this regulation are liable to the following 
penalties : For the first offence, imprisonment from four- 
teen days to four months ; for the second offence to penal 
servitude for tour years. The head of the family at 
whose instance such ceremony has been performed, has 
to pay a fine not exceeding twenty roubles. (Criminal 
Law, § 302.) 

Non-Jews, guilty of concealing military deserters are 
liable to imprisonment from two to four months, or to mil- 
itary arrest from three weeks to three months. But a Jew 
who has concealed a Jewish deserter, even during ever 
so short a time, is liable to penal servitude from twelve 
to eighteen months. In addition to this, the members of 
the Jewish communitj' where a Jewish deserter has been 
concealed, will be sentenced to a fine not exceeding 300 
roubles. (Criminal Law, 1885, §§ 528 and 530.) 

If a non-Jew evades the fulfilment of his military 
duties, the liability, according to §§ 506-520, to punish- 
ment lies only upon him personally. But if a Jew 
evades the fulfilment of his military duties, his family 
is liable to a fine of 300 roubles, over and above his own 
personal responsibility. (Law on Military Duty, 1886, 
§ 360.) 

Non-Jews convicted of contraband importation of 
foreign goods, and of smuggling in general, or of partici- 
pation in the same, are liable to punishments laid down 
in Penal Code, §§744-764, 766-781, 781, 787, 790, 801- 
817, 819-821. But Jews, besides the ordinary punish- 



8) 

ment, will be removed to a distance of fifty versts from 
the frontier, not merely if convicted of smuggling, but 
even if suspected of that offence They may be thus 
removed with their families without a regular sentence 
by a judge, and merely on the requisition of the Custom 
House authorities. ( Voi. XIV^, Law on Passports, § 23, 
note, 1886.) 

Persons of all denominations, other than Jewish, who 
have infringed the regulations as to the education of 
youth, are liable to pay the fines laid down in §S 1049- 
1052 of the Penal Code. But Jewish teachers (melam- 
dim), for the same offence, are liable : for the first and 
second offences to a fine of twice the amount of the 
penalty to which non-Jews are liable under the same 
circumstances; for the third offence, over and above the 
payment of the fine, to an imprifc«onment of four to eight 
months. {Penal Code, § li»53.) 

Jewish colonists, if guilty of negligence in their occu- 
pation or of carrying on a trade not permitted them, 
are liable for the firbt offence to imprisonment of two to 
four months, for the second offence to double that pun- 
ishment, for the third offence to penal servitude for four 
years. {{Ibid., § 1056.) 

Those who are guilty of building synagogues or houses 
of pra3'er without permission, or who have built such 
within the distance from Christian churches prohibited 
by law, are liable to a fine not exceeding 200 roubles. 
(Ibid,. % 1074.) 

Persons of all other denominations, who carry on a 
trade not permitted them by law, are, if found guilty, 
liable, according to § 1169, to a fine not exceeding 300 
roubles. But Jews who carry on any trade outside the 
Pale of Jewish Settlement are punished by the confisca- 
tion of their goods and immediate expulsion. {Ibid., § 
1171.) 

Non-Christians who have performed the ceremony of 
marriage on persons who have not reached the age 
prescribed by law, or who have performed an illegal 
divorce, will, as well as their accomplices, lose their posts 
and be imprisoned for a period of two to four months. 



86 

But Rabbis convicted of such breach of the law for 
the second tirae, will be punished with penal servitude 
for four years. (76irf., § 1579.) 

REGULATIONS AS TO FOEEIGN JEWS. 

Foreign Jews, who obtain by inheritance house or 
landed property in Russia, must sell the same within the 
period of six months. ( VoL 7X, Law on Status, § 960, 
vol XIV,, Law on Passports, § 296, 1887.) 

Foreign Jews who are not Karaites, are not permitted 
to immigrate into Russia, or to become Russian subjects. 
{Vol IX., Law on Status, § 991.) 

Every foreigner on producing his passport will be 
required to declare, among other things, to which relig- 
ious denomination he belongs. (Fo/. XIV., Law on 
Passports, § 486, note, § 7, 1886.) 

Foreign Jews shall be furnished with passports, on 
which it shall be expressed that the same is valid only 
for such places where the Jews may permanently reside. 
(Ihid., §§ 8, 2.) 

Foreign Jewish subjects known from their social posi- 
tion, and from their large business transactions, on visit- 
ing Russia, are permitted to carry on their business 
within the Empire, and to found banking houses, subject 
to their becoming merchants of the first guild. This can 
only take place if a special permission has been granted 
to that effect by the Ministers of Finance, of the Interior, 
and of Foreign Affairs ; such permission must be solicited 
again at every renewal of the merchant guild certificate. 
(^Vof. IX, § iOOl, note 1, 18S7.) 

All foreigners who visit Russia for the purpose of 
transacting business, either without becoming Russian 
subjects, or with the intention of becoming Russian sub- 
jects, are required first to produce a certificate from a 
foreign Consistorium, or any other high clerical au- 
thority, to the effect that they and their families are 
Christians. The same law applies to those who arrive 
from the Kingdom of Poland, and from the Grand 
Duchy of Finland. {Ibid., note 3.) 



87 

Jews from Roumania, who have no means of subsiftt- 
ence, will not be admitted into Russia. (TV. XIV., 
Law on Passports, § 487, contin 1886.) 

The local authorities shall keep a strict Watch, that no 
foreign Jews reside under Christian names in places 
where they are prohibited to stay. {Vol, JCIV,, Law 
on Passports, § 531, 1886.) 

Foreign Jews may not manage or farm inhabited or 
uninhabited estates. \VoL /X., § 1004.) 



General observations, — The restrictive laws hereinbe- 
fore enumerated, the stringency of which is sufficiently 
obvious, give a very inadequate idea of their fu'l working 
effectiveness. Their practical working is intensified by a 
series of rulings by the Senate (the Court of Judicature), 
which has almost invariably interpreted the laws in a 
sense unfavorable to the Hebrews. It may, therefore, be 
readily understood that these laws are not only applied, 
but overstrained in their scope and intention by the 
Russian officials. 



OUTLINES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 

From the Return from Babylon to the Present Time, 
1890. 

With Three 2klaps, a Frontispiece and Chronological Tables* 

By lady MAGNUS. 

Revised by M. PKIEDLANDER, Ph. D. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

The entire work is nne of great Intert'st ; It is written with moderation, 
and yet with a fine enthusiasm for the great race which Is bet before the 
readers mind — Atlantic Mt/idhiy, 

We doubt whether there is in the English language a better slcetch of 
Jewish Instory. Tue Jewish Pubiidaiioii Society is to be congratulated 
on the successful opening of its career. Such a movement, so auspi' 
< ionsly begun, deserves the hearty support of the public.— iVotton (New 
Vorlc). 

Of universal historical Interest.— i»Ai?adeip^wi Ledger, 

Compresses much in simple language.— fiatti'/reorc Sun. 

Though full of sympathy for her own people, it is not without a sin- 
gular value for readers whose religious oelief differs from that of the 
author.— iVcM) York Time". 

One of the clearest and most compact works of Its class produced In 
moderu times.— .Vew York Sun. 

The Jewish Publication Society of America has not only conferred a 
favor upon all young Hebrews, but also upon all Gentiles who desire to 
see the Jew as he appears to himself.— .Boston Herald. 

We know of no single- volume history which gives a better idea of the 
remarkable part played by the Jews in ancient and modern historv.— 
►SViu Francisco Chronicle. 

A succinct, well-written history of a wonderful race.— PttJTato Courier, 

The beat hand-book of Jewish history that readers of any class can 
Tiud.—New York Herald. 

A convenient and attractive hand-book of Jewish history.— Oev lavd 
Plain D aUr. 

The work is an admirable one. and as a manual of Jewish historv it 
may be commended to persons of every race and creeo .-^Fhiladelphia 
Timet. 

Altogether It would be difficult to find another book ©n this subject 
containing so much information.— ^Iwcrican (Philadelphia). 

Lady Magnus' book is a valuable addition to the store-house of litera- 
ture that we already have about the Jews.— CAarics^o/* {S. C.) News. 

We should like to see this volume In the library of every school in the 
HtAte.— Albany Argux. 

A succinct, helpful portrayal of Jewish history.— Boston Post. 



Bound in Clath. Price, postpaid, $1.25. 



"THINK AND THANK." 

A Tale for the Young, Narrating in K-omantic Form the 
Boyhood ot Sir Moses Montefiore. 

WITH SIX ILLUSTRATIONS. 

By SAMUEL W. COOPER, 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

A graphic rimI iw ere-<tl g story, full of Incident and fidrentnre, with 
im admirable >-pirittttteudi'igi I cuinsunant wkh the kindly an>l sweet, 
tliou^h coiKageoiis niid i nergetic temper of the distinguished pliilau- 
thropisi.— ^TOtTir'aw (Philadelphia). 

THINK AND THANK is a most useful corrective to race pr j dice. It 
is also deep y i* teres ing as a Uograpuical sketch of a distinguished 
Englishman. — Philadelphia Ledger. 

A fine book for boyaof any class to read.— P«6Mc t)pt«i>n<Washington). 

It will have especial interest for the boys of his race, bitall school- 
boys can well aifoid lo read ii and prufit by it.-^Atbany Evening Journal. 

Told simply and well.— iVew York Sun. 

An excel ent story for chWdreR.— Indianapolis Journal, 

The old as well as the young may learn a lesson from it.— Jewish 
Exponent, 

It is a thrilling story exceedingly well told.— .im^rican Israe'Uie. 

The book is written in a plain, simple style, and is well adapted for 
Sunday-school libraries.— /tti;i8A Spectator, 

It is one of the very few books in the English language which can be 
placed in the hands of a Jewish boy with the assurance of arousing and 
maintaining his interest.— fie&reiu Journal. 

Intended for the young, but may well be read by their eldera.— Detroit 
Free Press. 

Bright and attractive retding.^Pkiladelphia Press, 

THINK AND THANK will please boys, and it will be found popular 
in Sunday-school libraries.— Acto York Herald. 

The story is a beautiful one, and gives a clear insight into the circum- 
stflncep, th»* training and the motives that gave impulse and energy to 
the life-work of the great philanthropist.— Aa/<sa8 City Times. 

We should be glad to know that this little book has a large circulation 
among Gentiles as well as among the ** chosen people." It has no trace 
of religious bigotry about It, and its perusal ca"not but serve lo make 
Christian and Jew better known to each other.^ Philadelphia Teiegraph. 



Bound in Cloth. Price, postpaid, 75c. 



' HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

vor«. I. 

from the Eadiest Period to the Death of Simos the Haccabee. 

BY Professor h. GRAETZ. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

The style hi distinctly popular, and St unquestionably represents the 
prominent featurvs of the period with accuraey and spirit.— PAitode^pAia 
Ltdger, 

Aside from bis rahie as a historian, he makes his pages charming by- 
all the little side-lights and illustrations which only come at the beck 
of geDias.-~C%icaj;K> Inter-Ocean, 

The writer, who is considered by far the greatest of Jewish historians, 
is the pioneer in his field of work — ^history without theology or polem- 
ics. . . His monumental work promises to be the standard by\%hich 
ail other Jewish histories are to be measured by Jews for many years to 
come^^IiuUimore American, 

This is a work that has commanded the highest encomiums of the 
press, Jewish and Gentile . . . It is written in a plain, clear, narrative 
style.— ^ew Orleans Heaywne. 

There is much of living intflrest in the work, which displays a fiiir 
and impurlial spirit.— Ifinneapo^ TWbune. 

The work is not only a history, but is a fascinating one that cannot 
fail to entertain as well as instruct the reader.— iSan jFVa.CMCO CuU, 

It is a well written, ably translated and iDterestiog yerslon of the 
history of a wonderful people.— ^0(;iUyn EagU, 

It is well that this reliable and complete history of the " peculiar 
people" should ni)W be translated into English and presented in 
available form to the public by the Jewish Society.— Burfin^ton Hawkeye. 

Professor Graetz's History is unirersally accepted as a conscientious 
and reliable contribution to religious literature.— PAt^oc^pAia TOe- 
graph. 



Bound in Cloth. Price, postpaid, $3 per volumo. 



RABBI AND PRIEST. 

A STORY. 

BY MILTON GOLDSMITH. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

The author has attempted to depict faithfhlly the customs and prae- 
tloes of the Kussian people and government in connection with the 
Jewish population of that country. The book is a strong and well writ- 
ten story. We read aud sufifer with the sufferers.— Pt^ic Opinion 
(Washington). 

Although addressed to Jews, with an appeal to them to seek free- 
dom and peace in America, it ought to he read by humane i>eople of all 
races and religions. Mr. Goldsmith is a master of English, aud his 
pure style is one of the real pleasures of the storj. ^PfnUaddphia BtUk- 
tin. 

The book has the merit of being well written, is highly entertaining, 
and ii cannot fail to prove of interest to all who may want to acquaint 
themselves In 'he matter of the condition of afifkirs that has recently 
been attracting universal attention.— <^n Francisco CdEL 

Rabbi and Priest has genuine worth, and is entitled to a rank 
among the foremost of its c\bs&.— Minneapolis Tribune. 

The writer tells his story from the Jewish standpoint, and tells it 
well.— Sf. Louis Republic. 

The descriptions of life in Russia are vivid and add greatly to the 
oharm of the book.— ^uiifoto Courier, 

A very thrilling story. — 0iarlesUm (S. C.) Newt, 

Very like the horrid tales that come firom unhappy Russia.— Aoo 
(Means Picayune. 

The situations are dramatic ; the dialogue is spirited.— Jeu;^8A Mes- 
senger. 

A history of passing events in an interesting iorm.— Jewish Tidings, 

Rabbi and Priest will appeal to the sympathy of every reader in its 
touching simplicity and truthAilness.— Jhi;!^^ Spectator, 



Bound In Cloth. Price, Post-paid, $1. 



The Persecotion of the. Jews in Russia. 

WITH A MAPp SHOWING THE PALE OF JEWISH SETTLEMEN1 

Also, an Appendix, giving an Abridged Summary of Laws, 

Special and Restrictive, relating to the Jews in 

Russia, brought down to the year 1890. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

The pamphlet is full of facts, and will inform people very fuily in 
regard to the basis of the complaints made by Jews against Russia. 
We hope it will be very widely circulated.— i^Kc Opinion (Wash- 
ington). 

The laws and regulations governing Jews in Russia, subjt cting them to 
severe oppression, grievous restrictions and systematic perHeeutiuu, are 
stated in condensed form with precise references, bespeaking exactness 
in complication and in presenting the case of these unfortunate people. 
—Galveston News. 

This pamphlet supplies information that is much in demand, and 
which ought to be generally known in enlightened countries.— Cmcm- 
naki Commercial Oazette. 

Considering the present agitation upon the subject it is a very timely 
publication.— A'eu; Orleans Picayune. 

It is undoubtedly the most compact ani thorough presentation of the 
Russo-Jewish question.— -American Israjelvbe. 

Better adapted to the purpose of affording an adequate knowledge of 
the issues involved in, and the consequences of, the present great 
crisis in the affairs of the Jews of Russia, than reams ol rhetoric— 
Hebrew Journal. 



Paper. Price, postpaid, 25o. 



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